Reunification of Germany
Terms in this set (78)
What did Stalin want from Germany in late 1940's and early 1950's?
neutral, unified disarmed Germany, as per the Potsdam Agreement i.e. subject to Four Power control
But relations with the USSR and FRG what was the main sticking point?
Adenauer claimed that the new FRG represented all Germans and GDR did not exit for him
As a result, what policy came about as a result?
'maintained tension', which discouraged contact with the GDR-the Hallstein Doctrine announced that diplomatic relations would be broken off with states that recognised the GDR
Was this relation one sided?
No, Ulbricht also had no intention of improving relations with the FRG
What is the policy of détente?
recognised that re-unification was a distant dream & that in the short-term it was better & safer to try to improve the lot of East Germans by negotiating with their leaders
How did this idea turn into active policy?
In 1966 Chancellor Erhard announced the 'New Opening to the East', in which he proposed a reduction of the number of nuclear weapons in Europe
Willi Brandt was always ready to work with East Germany how can this be seen?
Christmas 1963 West Berliners were able to visit their relatives across the border in East Berlin for up to 18 days
Willi Brandt became chancellor of West Germany in 1969 what was his main policy towards the GDR?
Ostpolitik aimed to pursue a new relationship with East Germany, aiming to lower tensions between the two countries & commence a more mutually co-operative relationship
How can Ostpolitik be seen into active policy?
1) Moscow Treaty 1970-West Germany renounced its claim it represented all of Germany
. The Berlin Agreement of 1971, in which the USSR promised to respect the right of West Berliners to travel freely to the GDR
The Basic Treaty of December 1972, in which both the GDR and FRG recognised the sovereign right of each country to exist
What why was Ostpolitik important for Germany?
German and world politicians the long-term existence of two separate Germanies
With Schmidt now the leader of West Germany what rose because of continuing Ostpolitik?
Between 1971 and 1983 visits by West Germans to the GDR rose from 1.3 million to 5 million
How could Carr be used to state that the reunification of Germany was likely to happen?
"1980s the FRG and the GDR, while not completely separate nations"
With Kohl allowing Pershing's II'S in West Germany what happened between relations FRG and GDR?
Honecker, the leader of East Germany, planned to visit the FRG in 1984, but had to cancel it on instructions from the Soviet Union
What was the GDR famous for being advance in (within the Eastern Block)
microelectronics & computer technology
But what Was the fundamental problems with their economy?
Lacked an industrial heartland, smaller population, suffered much more extensively from reparation payments demanded by the USSR, huge spending on defence
What was their economy by the 1980's?
In 1983 and 1984 it was forced to negotiate extensive loans from West Germany in order to prop up its economic system
planned prestige project to build the world's largest micro-chip, which cost 1 billion marks & failed to achieve its goal
What was the coal that the GDR used?
What was the result for the citizens of the GDR?
By 1989, in contrast to citizens of the FRG, men in the GDR lived 2.5 years less, and women lived 7 years less
In 1985 Gorbachev became leader of the USSR to reduce USSR spending what did two policys did he introduce?
perestroika (economic restructuring) and glasnost (openness):
What else did his reforms do?
The economic system was reformed - less central control, some private enterprise allowed, foreign investment allowed
Greater political rights & freedoms of speech were given to the USSR's citizens
How can it be showed that Honecker was destroying the GDR'S economy?
In early 1980s East Germany borrowed DM 1.95 billion from West Germany
To appease growing numbers of people trying to leave what policy did Honecker introduce?
1986 Honecker allowed a greater number of East Germans to visit their relatives in the FRG
What was the result of this policy?
1987 1.2 million, but increasing at an alarming rate to 6.2 million by 1988
And how many East Germans wanted to emigrate?
30,000 East Germans emigrated in 1988, increasing to 48,000 in early 1989
What did Kohl think of the travel policy actions?
would only lead to government repression, which would in turn damage FRG-GDR relations, which were improving
Although he didn't want to what did Kohl do?
East German citizens sought refuge in FRG embassies in Berlin and in other Eastern European capitals, they were now turned away & told to pursue emigration through the official channels of the GDR
What event on the 2nd of May 1989 changed the future of the communist counties?
Hungary would remove the barbed-wire fencing & fortifications along its border with Austria
What was the result of this action?
summer of 1989, tens of thousands of East Germans flooded into Hungary on the pretext of going on holiday
How did East Germans take advantage of the opening up of boarders?
20th August 500 East Germans successfully crossed the border
As a result of a mass amount of people what did the FRG and Austria say that they would do?
On 1st September the FRG and the Austrian government jointly announced that they would each accept a maximum of 20,000 East German refugees
What did Honecker do?
Honecker then banned Hungary as a travel destination
What did East Germans do?
East Germans responded by heading to Poland and Czechoslovakia, whose governments were already liberalising their countries in line with Gorbachev's reforms
How can it be seen that it was getting out of control?
By 7th October 40,000 East Germans had crossed into Austria via the Hungarian border
What did Honecker do?
launched verbal attacks against the FRG by claiming that they were deliberately encouraging the exodus in order to deplete the GDR of its population
What happened to Hocencker?
a gall bladder infection at a critical time, 21st August to late September 1989
What event happened every Monday?
16th October 1989 120,000 people were attending Pastor Führer's church service
West German television reported what was happening
What sparked the Dresden riots?
14,000 East Germans were camped out in the West German embassy in Prague
What was the Dresden riot?
3-hour riot involving 10,000 people in the city of Dresden as East Germans tried to board the train
Gorbachev visted the GDR on October 7th 1989 and stated that the GDR needed reform as a result what had happened?
9th October a crowd of 70,000 protestors gathered in Leipzig, which had grown to 100,000 by 17th October
With Honecker at an all-time low, what did the SED do?
The SED leadership now took action by removing Honecker, who was replaced with Egon Krenz, who announced his intention to introduce political reform
What did Krenz do?
Krenz introduced a new travel law that would give GDR citizens greater freedom, but it was so confusing that the East German parliament rejected it
Why was this too little too late?
750,000 East Germans had taken to the streets across the whole of East Germany
What event put pressure on the SED?
4th November mass protests took place in East Berlin, with protestors demanding political freedom, the legalisation of opposition groups & unrestricted travel rights
What mistake would cost the GDR?
Gunter Schabowski of the SED announced a new travel policy where any East German carrying a passport had greatly increased travel rights-which would happen 'immediately'
When was the boarder opened with the FRG?
9th November word spread that the border with West Germany was now open
What happened within days?
the next few weeks & the mass exodus continued e.g. in the first 10 days following the fall of the Berlin Wall 17,000 East Germans left for the West
What did the Soviet troops do?
1.5 million Soviet troops stationed in the GDR stayed in their barracks - Gorbachev had promised that he would not use the military to defend unpopular Communism against the will of their own people
The SED transformed to the PDS, what else happens?
New leaders appointed - Gregor Gysi &Hans Modrow
What was Kohl's actions?
a) July 1989 Kohl's chief foreign policy adviser, Horst Teltschik, stated that West Germany's main focus was to maintain existing borders in order to secure stability & peace in Europe
e.g. In the late 1980s West Germany had willingly worked with reformist Communist countries such as Poland and Hungary
e.g. Gorbachev had made a successful visit to Bonn in June 1989
What did Kohl introduce?
28th November Kohl surprised his own party and the world by announcing a Ten Point Plan
What was his 10 point plan?
Ten Point Plan proposed 'immediate assistance' for East Germany, coupled with the creation of 'confederate structures' between the FRG and the GDR, with the 'aim of creating a federation' linking the two Germanies
What did East Germans do?
11th December 1989 nearly one-third of a million protestors gathered in Leipzig carrying West German flags & calling for reunification
100,000 gathered to hear him talk
What did the USA want?
The USA President, George Bush in particular saw West Germany's membership of NATO as key & at the 11th December meeting stated that the USA would not accept a unified Germany if it was outside of NATO
What did the USSR say against this?
Soviet Union would accept a unified Germany that was a NATO member
What were Britain and France attitudes to reunification?
Unhappy that he didn't consulted them before, especially concerned that a unified Germany would be a dominant economic power that would challenge the status quo in Europe. fears that a unified Gy would be looking to recover territory lost in WW2
What did Kohl say?
Kohl agreed with Bush's demands that a unified Germany had to be a member of NATO; he reasoned that a unified Germany outside of NATO could lead to its collapse and a Europe dominated by the UK & France
As a result of the USA being able to come around what happened to Britain and France?
With American backing for reunification, Britain & France increasingly fell in to line
What did the USSR do?
stage only a massive loan could prop up the GDR, but he was unwilling & economically unable to give this assistance, given the USSR's own considerable economic problems
When did the Two plus four negotiations?
The 18th March GDR election result considerably helped the negotiations
What was stated in these negotiations?
The new East German government now formally requested that the GDR be allowed to join the FRG under the terms of Article 23
Article 23 of West Germany's Basic Law (i.e. her constitution) stated that unification could take place if the GDR accepted it under the laws & institutions of the FRG
The USSR was in crisis how can this be seen?
Gorbachev requested financial help from the USA, which the USA rejected
As a result, Gorbachev turned to the FRG for financial assistance
And what was the final sticking point?
over Gorbachev to a unified Germany belonging to NATO. The final sticking point had been overcome. In May 1990 Gorbachev told Bush that he would accept a unified Germany as a member of NATO
What was the Reunification process?
On 13th September 1990 the foreign ministers of the Four Powers, the FRG Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher, and the GDR's President de Maizière signed the 'Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany'
When did the GDR join the FRG?
At midnight on 2/3 October 1990 the territory of the GDR became part of the Federal Republic of Germany
What was the aftermath?
144 representatives of the GDR joined an enlarged Bundestag two days later, pending new federal elections in December
14th October the five East German federal states
5% rule was introduced
As an exception for these elections only, the 5% rule was applied separately to the 'old' and the 'new' federal states, which meant that the PDS did win some seats