BIO FINAL

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characteristics of living things
cells, reproduce, metabolism to maintain energy, growth and change, respond to environment, maintain homeostasis
containing carbon
organic
lipids
Elements = C, H, O are fatty acids store energy, membranes, insulation of heat, have waterproof covering, Monosaccharides fatty acids with glycerol.
nucleic acids
Elements C, H, O, N, P (S) make up DNA and RNA monomer = nucleotide
carbohydrates
Elements are C, H, O, main energy source, Monosaccharides = simple sugars
proteins
Elements= C, H, O, N , form muscle and bone provide structure and support.
substrate
+ enzyme creates a product to reaction
solute
what gets dissolved by the solvent
solvent
dissolves a solute
catalyst
lowers the activation energy and speeds up a chemical reaction
enzyme
acts as catalyst in the reaction (protein)
polarity
when one end of a molecule is + charged and one other end is - , such as water O2 holds the electrons more closely away from H
covalent
bond between 2 non metals(water,O to H), both atoms gain electrons
ionic
bond between a metal and non metal, one looses and one gains electrons
acidic
pH level of 0-7
basic
pH level of 7-14
neutral
pH level of 7
plasma membrane
phospholipid bilayer that filters what comes in and out of the cell
nuclear envelope
regulates what comes in and out of the nucleus
nucleus
where DNA is contained center of the cell
nucleolus
site of ribosome assembly
cytoplasm
:clear fluid suspends organelles
mitochondria
cellular respiration occurs
smooth ER
sight of lipid(fat) synthesis and storage, eukaryotic, has no ribosomes
rough ER
site of protein synthesis,has ribosomes, all eukaryotic cells
golgi apparatus
modified proteins, looks like a sack of pancakes
lysosomes
breaks down cell waste contains enzymes
ribosome
site of protein synthesis on the rough ER
vacuole
stores water and waste products of the cell
cell wall
the outermost wall of a cell's structure provides support
chloroplast
where photosynthesis occurs
cytoskelaton
provides structure inside the cell helps organelles move by expanding and contrasting
centriole
helps with cell division and is what pools the chromosomes apart
facilitated diffusion
larger molecules move across membrane (no ATP)
active transport
when molecules move across membrane low concentration to a high concentration (need ATP)
anaerobic respiration
is ATP production in the absence of O2 only glycolysis and fermentation occur.
aerobic respiration
is ATP production in the presence of O2 glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport chain
transcription
the process by which DNA is used to make mRNA in side the nucleus.
translation
process where mRNA is used to make a protein
missense
point mutation that results in a change in the amino acid sequence
law of segregation
that alleles will segregate randomly among one another
law of independent assortment
genes on different chromosomes will assort independently from one another
incomplete dominance
where neither allele is dominant and the result is a new phenotype
co dominant
where two alleles are crossed the result is that they are both expressed at the same time.
diploid
a cell that has 2 versions of the same chromosome
haploid
any cell that has 1 version of each chromosome
evidence of evolution
Fossils, DNA, homologous and vestigial structures, embryology, biogeography
convergent evolution
where 2 different species become more similar over a period of time
divergent evolution
where a species becomes more unlike the others of its kind
bottleneck effect
a dramatic reduction in the population size occurs and only certain alleles survive; therefore, the gene pool changes
founder effect
a small group of organisms migrate out of the population and only carry those alleles; therefore, the gene pool changes
directional
selection that favors one end of the extreme
stabalizing
selection that favors the middle
disruptive
selection that favors both extremes
speciation
creation of a new species as a result of natural selection
temporal
organisms can not mate anymore because they have different timing of reproduction
behavioral
organisms can not mate anymore because they have different mating behaviors or other behaviors
binomial nomeclature
in a scientific name the genus comes first then the species
binomial nomeclature
in a scientific name the genus comes first then the species
biotic factors
living components of an ecosystem
mutualism
is where both organisms benefit from the relationship
commensalism
is where one organism benefits and the other neither suffers or benefits
parasitism
he parasite/organism benefits while the other suffers or struggles
niche
the role and opinion of a species in its environment how it survives reproduces, includes all the interactions with biotic and abiotic factors
endocrine
made up of glands that send hormones into the bloodstream. Hormones send messages around the body
urinary/excretory
the job is to remove waste products from the blood, maintain PH, regulate water, volume of blood.
skeletal and muscular
supports the body protects organs, controls muscle movement stores calcium blood, blood cell formation.
respitory
to take in O2 and breath out CO2
circulatory system
function is to transport oxygen nutrients to the body tissues and pick up the tissues as waste products
digestive
absorption of nutrients and creation of (ATP)
stimulus
something you want to initiate or change
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