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Terms in this set (63)
In an experiment that subjected participants to increasing isolation in a computerised ball tossing game, fMRI scans showed activity in the cingulate cortex, a region of the brain that is active during
On 30 October 1938, radio broadcaster and actor Orson Welles told his listeners that Martians were launching an attack on New York City. Hundreds of frightened listeners fled into the streets, and others hid in their basements. This is an example of
According to the __________ theory, people evaluate their abilities and beliefs by comparing them with those of others.
From an evolutionary perspective, irrational behaviours based on blind obedience that lead to dangerous results are by-products of _______ processes that have gone terribly wrong
Which group is most likely to exhibit contagious yawning?
Chimpanzees in the wild
__________ helps us understand why we are helpful sometimes and harmful at other times by shedding light on our beliefs, attitudes and actions.
Mary sees John give a beggar a dollar. Because of the gesture, she thinks that John must be a generous, charitable man. This is an example of...
the fundamental attribution error
Because of _______, we tend to classify too much of people's behaviour to who they are and underestimate the impact of situational influences on others' behaviour, meaning that we attribute too little of their behaviour to what's going on around them.
the fundamental attribution error
Ellena promised to provide refreshments for the committee meeting, but she arrived empty-handed and apologised, saying she forgot. Jessica concluded that Ellena forgot because she is inconsiderate. Jessica's conclusion was a(n) _____.
We are more likely to succumb to the fundamental attribution error in regards to
Serena believes that most people who join cults do so because they are emotionally disturbed or mentally ill. This is an example of ___________
the fundamental attribution error
Jim knew the national economy was in recession, but he was shocked when his boss made 10 of the company's most loyal employees redundant. Jim assumed his boss did this because he was a greedy, selfish person. He didn't realise that these redundancies saved the entire company from bankruptcy. What is Jim guilty of?
the fundamental attribution error
In Asch's research, if all confederates gave the wrong answer, the participant was more likely to conform. Nevertheless, if one confederate gave the correct response, the level of conformity plummeted by three-quarters. This is a demonstration of which variable?
uniformity of agreement
The most prominent feelings that contribute to deindividuation are _______ and lack of personal responsibility.
Many early studies suggested that women are more likely to conform than men; however, these studies had one major flaw. What was that flaw?
the experimenters were all male
The tendency of people to alter their behaviour as a result of group pressure is known as __________.
The tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behaviour when they are stripped of their usual identities is known as __________.
In his classic study on conformity, Asch found ___________.
if all the confederates gave the wrong answer, the participant was more likely to conform
Which of the following qualities is NOT one of the ways that cults promote groupthink?
Encouraging questioning of the group's assumptions
Symptoms of groupthink include the following...
an illusion of the group's unanimity, conformity pressure & self-censorship.
_________ takes place when majority individual opinions are reinforced by group discussion.
Irving Janis developed the idea of groupthink after studying the reasoning process associated with the ___________
Bay of Pigs invasion
The symptoms of groupthink include all of the following...
Illusions of invulnerability, Mindguards and stereotyping of the out-group.
The inoculation effect, used to help reverse cult indoctrination, means to...
first expose people to information consistent with cult beliefs and then debunk it
Adherence to the instructions from those in higher authority is the definition of...
Stanley Milgram was motivated to develop a paradigm to study obedience because he believed that obedience played a key role in ___________.
unjustified violence against individuals
The Milgram paradigm was devised to help understand the causes of ___________.
In the Milgram paradigm shock experiment, which variation of the experiment resulted in complete disobedience on the part of the participants?
Second experimenter disagrees with the first about whether to continue
Milgram's findings about obedience included the fact that ________.
obedient and disobedient participants are similar on most personality variables
In replications of the Milgram study, conditions were varied to test performance. The participant (the 'teacher') was most likely to obey the experimenter's instructions to give shocks when _____________.
the 'teacher' was allowed to have someone else administer the shocks
People walk past a man lying on the floor in the concourse of a train station in a major city. What is the most likely explanation for why people don't try to help the man on the floor?
Behaviour that is intended to help others is known as _________ behaviour.
Some scientists have argued that we only help others out of self-centred reasons, such as relieving our own distress, vicariously enjoying someone else's joy, or anticipating reciprocation. Research has shown that
people help others also because of genuine altruism.
Research shows that even within a geographical area, _______ result(s) in a higher crime rate.
The presence of _______, such as guns or knives, can make people more likely to act violently when provoked.
Mary is great at giving her mum the 'silent treatment' whenever they disagree. On these occasions, Mary is engaging in __________.
Behaviour that is intended to hurt others, whether verbally or physically, is known as ________.
Which term refers to the social norm of defending one's reputation in the face of perceived insults that can lead to high levels of violence in the parts of the world where it is practised?
culture of honour
Which of the following is an example of the role of interpersonal provocation in promoting aggression?
After Kyle tells Robert he is stupid, Robert hits Kyle in the stomach.
People who tend to be chameleons, matching their behaviour and professed attitudes to those of the people around them, tend to be
A belief is defined as a conclusion regarding _________.
According to the chapter, a controversial 2003 study saying that political conservatives tend to be more fearful, more sensitive to threat and less tolerant of uncertainty than liberals may have been
flawed by failing to consider rival hypotheses
David has been smoking since he was 15 years old. He knows smoking is unhealthy, but he justifies his smoking by saying it calms him down. This is an example of
Every day, Sally listens to right-wing political opinions on television. Because of this, she is more likely to believe in right-wing political opinions. What is this an example of?
_________ theory proposes that individuals acquire their attitudes by observing their own behaviours
Which behavioural theory would be described by the sentence, 'We acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviours'?
According to __________ theory, people change their minds because they experience an unpleasant state of tension between two conflicting thoughts.
When researchers gave capuchin monkeys a choice between two different-coloured candies, their preference for the candy colour they didn't pick decreased, just as people who buy a car later feel a dislike for the car they almost bought but didn't. This effect is called
In the dual process model of persuasion, the peripheral route leads us to focus on surface aspects of the argument and
make snap judgements
According to the dual process models of persuasion, there are two pathways to persuading others. A student who is carefully evaluating all the information on three universities before making a final selection is following which pathway?
the central route
Jeremiah needs to get his entire class to volunteer at least three hours a week to clean up the playground. He decides to start by asking each class member to volunteer for 30 minutes; then he will ask them for more time once they have completed the 30-minute rotation. Which persuasion technique is Jeremiah using?
Taneesha has just graduated from high school. Some of her classmates point out to her that she overcame enormous odds in order to reach that goal because of her race and the community in which she grew up. This is an example of a(n)
ultimate attribution error
Which term means the tendency to favour members of our own group?
Out-group ___________ is the tendency to view all people outside of one's own group as highly similar.
Before he met his new co-worker, David had a fully formed mental picture of what she would be like based solely on the fact that she was from a particular region of the country. This is an example of ___________.
What broad evolutionary principle can be described by the phrase 'better safe than sorry'?
Kate believes that Carly is ditzy because she has blonde hair. Kate is demonstrating a(n) _________ toward blondes.
Which of the following means the idea that prejudice comes from a need to blame other groups for our misfortunes?
Which of the following is NOT one of the ideal conditions for reducing prejudice, based on research by Kenrick and his colleagues?
Group members should confirm the other group's stereotypes about them
Which sentence best describes a jigsaw classroom?
Each student works on a task or a portion of a project, then the students collaborate to assemble the completed project.
Because many of us want to believe the world is fair, we can end up blaming people who are less well off than we are, thinking they must be responsible for their own situations. This is called the
What did the Robbers Cave study demonstrate regarding prejudice?
Encouraging people to work together toward a shared common purpose can mitigate prejudice.
Julia believed that she held no prejudices against people of other races. Yet, when she was standing in line next to a family of a different race, she frowned without realising it and stood further away from them than she would stand from someone of her own race. Julia exhibited ________ prejudice.
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ch 6 - T6 101
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