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Chapter 38 Digestive & Excretory Systems Vocabulary

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Calorie
unit that measures heat energy and the energy contents of foods
Carbohydrate
organic compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in a ratio; major source of energy for the human body
Fat
an organic molecule that includes glycerol and fatty acids
Protein
nitrogen-containing organic compound composed of bonded amino acid molecules
Vitamin
organic compound other than a carbohydrate, lipid or protein needed for normal metabolism but that the body cannot synthesize in adequate amounts and must therefore be obtained in the diet
Mineral
inorganic element essential in human metabolism
Amylase
enzyme that hydrolyzes polysaccharides
Esophagus
tubular part of the digestive tract between the pharynx and the stomach
Peristalsis
rhythmic waves of muscular contraction in the walls of certain tubular organs
Stomach
digestive organ between the esophagus and the small intestine
Chyme
semifluid mass of partially digested food and stomach fluids that passes from the stomach to the small intestine
Small Intestine
part of the digestive tract extending from the stomach to the cecum; consisting of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
Pancreas
glandular organ in the abdominal cavity that secreates hormones and digestive enzymes
Liver
large organ just above the stomach that produces bile, a fluid loaded with lipids and salts
Villus
folded projection that increases the surface area of the walls of the small intestine
Large Intestine
colon; organ that removes water from the undigested materials that pass through it
Kidney
organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter
Ureter
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder
saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted
Nephron
blood filtering unit in the renal cortex of the kidney
Filtration
process by which a liquid or gas passes through a filter to remove waste
Glomerulus
small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of a nephron; where the filtration of blood takes place
Bowman's Capsule
cup-shaped structure in the upper end of a nephron that encases the glomerulus
Reabsorption
process in which liquid is taken back into a vessel
Loop of Henle
section of the nephron tubule that conserves water and minimizes the volume of urine
Urethra
tube that carries urine from the bladder and releases it from the body; in males, tube through which semen is released from the body