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unit that measures heat energy and the energy contents of foods


organic compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in a ratio; major source of energy for the human body


an organic molecule that includes glycerol and fatty acids


nitrogen-containing organic compound composed of bonded amino acid molecules


organic compound other than a carbohydrate, lipid or protein needed for normal metabolism but that the body cannot synthesize in adequate amounts and must therefore be obtained in the diet


inorganic element essential in human metabolism


enzyme that hydrolyzes polysaccharides


tubular part of the digestive tract between the pharynx and the stomach


rhythmic waves of muscular contraction in the walls of certain tubular organs


digestive organ between the esophagus and the small intestine


semifluid mass of partially digested food and stomach fluids that passes from the stomach to the small intestine

Small Intestine

part of the digestive tract extending from the stomach to the cecum; consisting of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum


glandular organ in the abdominal cavity that secreates hormones and digestive enzymes


large organ just above the stomach that produces bile, a fluid loaded with lipids and salts


folded projection that increases the surface area of the walls of the small intestine

Large Intestine

colon; organ that removes water from the undigested materials that pass through it


organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter


tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder

Urinary Bladder

saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted


blood filtering unit in the renal cortex of the kidney


process by which a liquid or gas passes through a filter to remove waste


small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of a nephron; where the filtration of blood takes place

Bowman's Capsule

cup-shaped structure in the upper end of a nephron that encases the glomerulus


process in which liquid is taken back into a vessel

Loop of Henle

section of the nephron tubule that conserves water and minimizes the volume of urine


tube that carries urine from the bladder and releases it from the body; in males, tube through which semen is released from the body

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