47 terms

US History: Unit 2 - American Revolution

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French and Indian War
* French and Indians vs. British
* War starts in Europe and spreads to North America
* Fought over control of Ohio Country
* Led to a huge amount of debt for Britain
Treaty of Paris, 1763
* French lost all land in North America
* Louisiana was ceded to Spain
* Britain gained all land east of the Mississippi except Florida and French land in Canada
Proclamation of 1763
* King of England drew a line along the Appalachian Mountains after the Treaty of 1763 stating colonial settlers could not settle west of this line
* Goal of Britain was to limit conflicts with the American Indians
Stamp Act
* Direct Tax from British Parliament
* Any printed materials had to have a stamp
* Examples: Legal documents, magazines, newspapers, playing cards
* Purpose was to pay for British troops stationed in colonies
Boston Massacre
* British soldiers killed 5 civilians
* Started over verbal abuse and rocks thrown from colonists
* Propaganda made incident sound worse to increase anti-British sentiment
Boston Tea Party
* Protest Led by Sons of Liberty
* Parliament had passed the Tea Act which angered the colonists, by taxing all tea which came into their ports
Intolerable Acts (aka Coercive Acts)
* Punishment for the Boston Tea Party
- Quartering Act: Provide food and shelter to British soldiers
- Boston Port was closed
- Limited Town Meetings
- Trials could be done in Britain
* Colonists organized the 1st Continental Congress to plan a protest
Sons & Daughters of Liberty
* American Patriots who organized to protect colonists rights
* Famous Sons of Liberty: Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, Paul Revere, John Hancock
* Famous Daughters of Liberty: Sarah Bradlee Fulton, Susan Boudinot, Nancy Hart
Committees of Correspondence
* Patriot leaders organized these meetings to carry out their plans
* Goal was to improve communication between colonies
* Created plans of action, propaganda all to inspire patriotism and buying home made goods
John Locke
* Enlightenment thinker who influenced the Declaration of Independence
* Believed that people had the right to revolt if governments were unjust
* Believed in Life, Liberty and Property
Thomas Paine's Common Sense
* Argument for the colonists against British rule
* Helped common people join the patriot cause
"No Taxation Without Representation"
* Slogan used from 1750's to revolutionary war in 1770's
* Colonists were upset at being taxed while having no voice or representation in congress
George Washington
* Leader of the Continental Army
* 1st US President
Parliamentary Sovereignty
* Parliament's policy that they were now in complete control of the colonies
* Took place for the colonies after the French and Indian War
* Ended Salutary Neglect
Declaration of Independence
It listed all of the reasons and grievances against England
Thomas Jefferson
* Primary author of the Declaration of Independence
Baron von Steuben
* Prussian Military Officer
* Trained Continental Soldiers
Marquis de Lafayette
* French General who served under George Washington
* Big Patriot supporter who helped get French support for the Americans
Trenton
* Washington crossed the Delaware River to lead a surprise attack on Trenton
* Americans gained control over most of New Jersey
* Improved morale and unity of Continental Army
Valley Forge
* Winter of 1777-1778
* George Washington set up the Continental Army's camp here in Pennsylvania
* Starvation, disease and weather were major factors
Battle of Saratoga
* Turning point of the Revolutionary War
* Because of this victory by the Patriots, The French Government decided to enter the war and support the Americans
* Influenced by the ridges, rivers, and climate
Battle of Yorktown
* British surrender to Americans
* Last battle of the Revolutionary War
* Americans were aided by the French in surrounding the British at Yorktown on land and sea
Treaty of Paris, 1783
* Officially ends war between Great Britain and the former 13 colonies
* Recognize the U.S. as free and independent
John Adams
Traveled to France with Benjamin Franklin to secure an alliance
Benjamin Franklin
* Traveled to France with John Adams to secure an alliance
* Helped draft the Declaration of Independence
* Helped draft the Treaty of Paris, 1783
General Charles Cornwallis
Commanding general of the British forces that were defeated at Yorktown in 1781, ending the American Revolution.
US Constitution
The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Shay's Rebellion
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
Great Compromise
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.
3/5 Compromise
the decision at the Constitutional convention to count slaves as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of deciding the population and determining how many seats each state would have in Congress
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
Limited Government
A principle of constitutional government; a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution.
Charles de Montesquieu
believed in separation of powers and having three branches of government; he inspired James Madison
Executive Branch
Branch of government that enforces the laws
Legislative Branch
the branch of government that makes the laws
Judicial Branch
the branch of government that interprets laws
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Federalists
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Anti-Federalists
Opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption.
The Federalists Papers
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
James Madison
"Father of the Constitution," Federalist leader, and fourth President of the United States.
Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
States Rights
the rights and powers held by individual US states rather than by the federal government.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Crossing of the Delaware River
on Christmas 1776, Washington led the Americans to a surprise attack and victory over the British and their Hessian mercenaries at Trenton, New Jersey. Marked turning point in Revolutionary War

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