24 terms

Miller and Levine Biology Ch 10

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cell division
Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
asexual reproduction
Process of reproduction involving a single parent that results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
sexual reproduction
A reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents
Chromosomes
A cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins
Cell Cycle
"The events of cell division; includes interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis"
Chromatin
Substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones
Interpahse
stage of the eukaryotic cell cycle when the cell grows, synthesizes DNA, and prepares to divide
Mitosis
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis conserves chromosome number by equally allocating replicated chromosomes to each of the daughter nuclei.
Cytokinesis
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
Prophase
Chromosomes become visable, nuclear envelop dissolves, spindle forms
Centromere
Area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
Chromatid
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
Centriole
Cell organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only
Metaphase
When the chromosome align connected to the spindle fibers
Anaphase
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
Telophase
"Final phase of mitosis during which chromosomes uncoil, a nuclear envelope returns around the chromatin, and a nucleolus becomes visible in each daughter cell"
Cyclin
one of a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
Growth Factor
one of a group of external regulatory proteins that stimulate the growth and division of cells
Apoptosis
Programmed cell death
Cancer
Disorder in which some of the body's cells lose the ability to control growth
Tumor
A mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably.
Embryo
An organism in the earliest stage of development
Differentiantion
The ability to sort out and use independently different parts of the body in a specific and controlled manner
Stem cell
unspecialized cells that retain the ability to become a wide variety of specialized cells

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