PSYCH 309 Final

Compare individual and group tests. What are the advantages of using individual tests? Group tests
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What is the Raven Progressive Matrices test? What is a major advantage of this testBest known and most popular non verbal group ability tests. Minimizes the effects of language and cultureWhich test is one of the simplest, quickest, and easy to administer of all ability tests?Goodenough-Harris drawing testWhat is the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and GPA/standardized test scores?Lower SES is most likely to affect standardized test scores.Define personality, characteristics, types, traits, states and self-conceptPersonality: relatively stable and enduring patterns of behavior that characterize a person's reactions to the environment Traits: Enduring dispositions, tendencies to act, think, or feel in a certain manner States: Emotional reactions that vary from one situation to anotherWhat are the two major strategies for development of a personality test?Deductive EmpiricalWhat are the deductive strategies for structured personality-test construction? Define & differentiate.Subtypes: Logical-content and theoretical Logical Content: assumes face validity; does it look like it should measure it? Theoretical: come up with a theory first and then see if the items get at itWhat are the empirical strategies for structured personality-test construction? Define &Subtypes: Criterion Groups and Factor Analysis Criterion Group; MMPI and MMPI 2. Almost have nothing to do with the diagnosis (I sweat outside= schizophrenic) Do the schizophrenic people tend to consistently answer differently then the control group on a certain question Factor Analysis: like factor analysis and see which items are loading onto which factorsWhat is cross validation?Process of evaluating a test for a sample other than the one used for the original studies Administering a test to a different group of people with the same diagnosis as the normative sample to see if it reliability discriminates between groups Normal vs people who would be diagnosedWhat are some of the criticisms of the original MMPI?Poor sample for the control groupWhat is the purpose of the MMPI and MMPI-II? What three types of scales are there?types: Validity (LFK; 3 of them), Clinical (10 scales), Content Purpose is to diagnoseWhat reading level is required for both the MMPI and MMPI-II?MMPI 2 = 8th grade readingKnow the three validity scales and what they measure.Lie scale: present oneself in a favorable light--people unwilling to acknowledge minor flaws Infrequency scale (F scale): Schizophrenia people will say yes to these things like do you hear voices? K Scale: trying to project an image of self controlWhat is Code Typing on the MMPI? How has this been beneficial?Looking at two high scores and putting them together. Use those to diagnose.Is there much empirical research on the MMPI and MMPI-II?Yes, 10,000 studiesWhat are the three types of variance associated with Factor analytic strategy?Common variance, Unique variance, Error varianceWhat kind of test-development strategy (or strategies) were used to develop the NEO-PI-R? What does NEO stand for?Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness Factor Analytic and theoreticalDefine projecting. Know examples of projection.b. When you are projecting, we ascribe ideas attitudes or characteristics within ourselves to the world around us. c. Example; faces with a neutral inkblot, but you project something about you onto it d. Examples on test; score well on final and you are happy, roommate is chillin but you think they are happy that is projection e. Another; young child looks at his own shadow and views it as fearsome, that is projections f. As humans we tend to find meaning in vague or ambiguous stimuli as fallible peopleWhat is the projective hypothesis? Know the specifics about this hypothesis and what it contains.When people attempt to understand an ambiguous or vague stimulus their interpretation of that stimulus reflects their needs, feelings, experiences prior conditioning, thought processes and so forth.Are the Rorschach and TAT frequently used in the clinical setting now?Yes; they are 2 of the 10 most commonly used tests in clinics today. Clinics use them but the scientific community rejects themDescribe the psychometric properties of the Rorschach and why they are good or bad.poor interrater reliability poor relationship with psychological disorders problem with RWhat issues are raised regarding the Rorschach and overpathologizing?Increased rates of diagnosis when they use the Rorschach. Has to do with the way you diagnose responses to the stimuli and the problem with RWhat is the problem of "R"?No limit to the # of responses, and one's score goes up with increased responding--basically, the more you respond, the more psychopathic you are The more you say is more likely you will hit the responses that show you have somethingWhat are the arguments for the Rorsarch?Test can readily be administered to patients who cannot readWhat are the arguments against the Rorsarch?lacks a universally standard administration, no standardized scoring or interpretation Poor reliability because its different every time Evaluations of the data are subjective Poor test retest and interrater reliability.What is the alternate Inkblot test? What problems was it made to address? Why isn't it popular?Holtzman Created to address administration and scoring procedures, interrater reliability, norms for ages Has standardized administration and scoring Good reliability Don't use because they refuse to exaggerate the claims Unpopular because Holtzman refuses to exaggerate claimsHow does the Rorschach differ from the TAT? Be able to compare and contrast the Rorschach and TAT.Thematic Apperception Test Based on Murray's theory of 28 human needs Have a person interpret what is going on in the picture The TAT is more structured and less ambiguous than the Rorschach*** Rorschach is rejected by the scientific community but accepted by the clinical TAT gets better reception from the scientific community Rorschach is atheoretical TAT not purported to be a diagnostic toolWhat do reliability and validity studies of the TAT suggest?*"the TAT is more structured and less ambiguous than the Rorschach"*What is the Barnum effect? What is confirmation bias? How do these apply to projective tests?tendency to accept certain information as true even when it's super vague; gullibility of people when they think they're reading descriptions of themselves even though it really applies to everyone Confirmation bias: we seek out information that confirms what we believe *test examples; horoscopes, "you have a tendency to be critical of yourself" "while you have some personality weaknesses you..." Who would have said this?What were the common traits of geniuses that informed Duckworth's grit scale?Tendency not to abandon tasks for mere changeability (don't mix it up just to mix it up) Tendency not to abandon tasks in the face of obstaclesWhat is the difference between self-control and grit?Self-control is short term goals Long terms goals deal with gritWhat is the relationship between IQ and grit?Inverse relationship with IQ and Grit; if you are smart you don't have to work that hard at things, if you aren't as smart you need to work hard and keep tryingWho is the chief scientist who developed the notion of deliberate practice?Anders EricksonWhat is deliberate practice?Mozart is a good example Its not enjoyable. Its stuff you are really bad at and you have to do and work hard at. (left handed layups) Spending time on things you are not good at. Not just doing the things you have done your entire life (playing harder songs on the piano) Sorting out things you don't understand and just working on the harder stuffWhat is the 10 year rule?10 years or 10,000 hours is when you become an expert in that areaWhat was the main finding of the Spelling Bee study?They worked most on their areas of weaknessWhat is stress and what are its three components?Response to situations that involve demands, constraints, or opportunitiesWhat is anxiety and what are its three components?An emotional state marked by worry, apprehension, tensionWhat is the STAI? Explain what the difference between state and trait. Why is the STAI useful?State-Trait Anxiety Inventory State is temporary Trait is more long term Clinical psychologist would use this to see if people have higher levels of anxiety during his research experiment then during their day to day livesWhat is social support? What effect does social support have on longevity and quality of life?Good social support can extend your lifeWhat is quality-of-life assessment? What are the 2 common themes? How does the WHO define health?2 themes: Avoidance of death and quality of life WHO: World health Organization Define health as a complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease 2 approaches are the decision theory and psychometicWhat is the SF-36 and what are some of the strengths and weaknesses of this measure?Most commonly used behavioral measure in contemporary medicineWhat is decision theory and how is it applied?*Cost/benefit analysis*Define clinical neuropsychology. What fields does it overlap? How does it differ from these fields?The study of human behaviors, emotions, and thoughts and how they relate to the brain, particularly the damaged brain Overlaps with 3 fields: Neurology; Psychiatry; and Psychometry Example; Dr. so and so is a clinical neuropsychologist who deals with disease of the brain and uses treatment plans etc.What are some jobs done by a clinical neuropsychologist?Private Practice Hospitals Academia But can work anywhereWhat types of patients are clinical neuropsychologists most likely to see? What type of assessment are they most likely to complete?Purpose for doing assessment is to diagnosisWhat are the advantages and disadvantages to using clinical neuropsychological services?*Advantages: Can find problems missing by Nero imaging Can detect diseases in their earliest stages Determine individual cognitive strengths and weaknesses Disadvantages: Takes an extended amount of timeWhat is a fixed battery? What is a flexible battery? What are some advantages and disadvantages of each battery?Fixed: Predetermined set of tests Halstead-reitan Flexible:Assesment is individually tailored for each patient. Advantage; test specific to the problem at handWhat is one of the most commonly used fixed batteries?Halstead-reitanWhat is the general order of presentation for a neuropsychological test battery? Why this order?The test goes from Least complex to most complex (the test gets harder as you go)What are some problems with current neuropsychological tests of sensation and perception?Mostly Bedside neurological examsBe able to give examples of attention, memory, sensation and perception, motor skills, and executive functions.Praxis Test (practical for motor skills): can you stir a drink, button a shirt, use scissors? (motor skills) Executive function tests is like planningKnow the difference between working memory and long term memory.Working memory: repeat digits forward and backward Long term memory71. What deficits are associated with the left hemisphereWord memory problems Right/left disorientation Problems recognizing written words Problems performing calculations Problems with detailed motor activity (*getting dressed*)71. What deficits are associated with the right hemisphereVisual spacial deficiency Impaired visual perception Neglect Difficult writing Problems with spatial calculations Problems with gross voluntary movement (running)What is an operational definition?Defining a way to measure a hypothetical constructWhat is a hypothetical construct?Something that is not directly measurable, but which is inferred to exist and to produce measurable phenomena.Know how to differentiate between aptitude, achievement, and intelligenceAchievement: previous learning Aptitude: potential for learning or acquiring a specific skill Intelligence testing: person's general potential to solve problems, adapt to changing circumstances, think abstractly, and profit from experience.Know the four scales of measurement (hint: NOIR) and be able to differentiate between theseNominal: no previous properties, ex. Gender, race, religion Ordinal: magnitude, ex. Position in a race or tallest in class, better or worse, gold silver bronze, Interval: magnitude and equal intervals, ex. Fahrenheit, Ratio: magnitude, equal intervals, and absolute zero, ex. Kelvin scale, speed driving. Speedometer,Be able to differentiate between the mean, median, and mode.Mean: average Median: middle score after scores have been arranged in magnitude (not affected by outliers) Mode: most frequent score (only good for nominal data)What is the regression formula? Understand the different components of the formula and how they are applied. (Chapter 3)a. Y=a + bx b. B= slope c. A= y intercept d. Y= predicted y valueWhat components make up Classical Test Score Theory?observed score = true score + errorIn what ways can error impact the observed score?it pulls it from the true score Situational factors (AP English story) How the test is created Item Wording can introduce error Test administration (kinda with situational) Test take variables (dog died, tired, etc.) Different ways people score.Test reliability is usually estimated in one of what three ways? Know the major concepts in each way.Test-retest- consider consistency of test results when test is administered on different occasions Item sampling- parallel forms: evaluate the test across different forms is the test internal consistenc- examines homogeneity with which a test measures a contruct. examine how people perform on similar subjects is items selected from the same from of the measure (Cronbach's Alpha is a test of internal consistency)What is a carryover effect?Test-retest correlation usually overestimates (inflates) the true reliability when a test taken twice and answers are remembered from the first time you take it second score is influenced from the first timeWhat is reliability? How can one address/improve low reliabilityincrease the number items though out items that run-down reliability Estimate the true correlation if the test did not have measurement errorWhat is systematic error in a test called? Why is this negative?BiasWhat is the relationship between reliability and validityReliability is necessary for but not sufficient for validityWhat is validity? What are the three main types of validity evidence?Construct- related Convergent divergent Criterion-related Predictive Concurrent postdictive Content-related Construct underrepresentation Construct irrelevantWhat pre-requisites exist for validityReliabilityWhat is construct-related validity? Why is it the "mother of all validities"? What are the two types of evidence for construct-related validity?is established through a series of activities in which a researcher simultaneously defines some construct and develops the instrumentation to measure it. a. Convergent: does it give you similar results or test measuring the same thing. How does this test come part to similar scales. b. Discriminant (Divergent) ): diff from tests that are measuring diff things. See how this test measures up against tests that are different. UniquenessWhat is the validity coefficient? What is the meaning of a squared validity coefficient?Same as R; to see if its valid. If you square it its just like squaring R- its tells you the averaged squared deviation from the mean. How much the GPA is accounted for by the ACT (variance)What is incremental validity?Does it offer anything different, when testing client does it offer anything new for the client. But can get confusing. In practice the client is getting tired, you may want to stop. Getting new information. You gonna get it? No? then stop. What does this tell me about this person if I didn't give it? What does it increase.What is the relationship between test examiner race and intelligence scores?There is little evidence that the examiner race affects test scores with trained professionals, but perhaps with paraprofessionals.What are expectancy effects? What is another name for these effectsRosenthal effects; find what they expect to findWhat is the halo effect? Be able to identify examples of when the halo effect would applyWhen you attribute a lot of good qualities and attributes to someone because of a few good qualities.What is social facilitation? Be prepared to identify examplesCan be a positive or a negative things. its how the interviewer influences the interviewee.93. What is positive manifold?all tests no matter how diverse all test for g (general mental ability)What is g? Understand fluid vs. crystallized intelligenceGeneral mental ability Fluid: ability to learn and acquire new knowledge Crystallized: knowledge we have aquiredBe able to define and differentiate between sensitivity, specificity, true positive, true negative, false positive, false negative. Be able to understand examples of each.a. Sensitivity; accuracy of the test in identifying something. If it is sensitive it is good at finding true positives. Errors on the side of diagnosing. b. Rorsharch tends to identify all disordered people and almost half normal people as well c. If side effects of treatment are few such most people would opt for the treatment of the cancer, then you want it to be sensitive. d. Trade off for a test with high sensitivity and low specificity is many false positives. (if you are over diagnosing people it is false positive. Not specific enough)Question 70the answer is not DIn the MMPI 2, What T scores are considered significant?at or above 65 are considered significantPersonality tests. how is the long term reliability?Poor long term reliability because although people exhibit a core of stability they continually changeHow do computer tests like the GRE work?change the item difficulty level depending on how well you did in the previous sections. if you did well in the first the next section will be really hardHow can most stats be summarized?SIGNAL/ NOISESystematic error/ bias3 clocks in your house and every clock is 10 mins fast, that is an example of systematic error (all the error is the same throughout, bias time telling)