167 terms

Biology

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Characteristics of all living things
organization, cells, response to stimulus, homeostasis, metabolism, growth and development, reproduction, change through time
Homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
metabolism
the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life (through the transformation of materials into energy)
Cell Division
process by which a cell splits into two new cells, the process of growth and development
development
the process by which an organism becomes a mature adult, through cell division and differentiation
reproduction (two kinds)
not essential to life, but this is the transmission of hereditary information to offspring.

Sexual reproduction: two organisms that create a similar but not identical offspring

Asexual reproduction: hereditary information comes from one organism, and the offspring is genetically identical
Which of the following is not a key characteristic of lifE: reproduction, movement, growth, heredity
movement
What process do the cells of multicellular organisms undergo that distinguishes them from unicellular organisms?
cellular differentiation
How does the structure of a living thing differ from the structure of a nonliving thing?
The structure of a living thing is complex, but the structure of a nonliving thing is not.
Three domains
Eukarya, Prokarya/Bacteria, Archaea
Six Kingdoms
Animalia, plantae, fungi, protista (All eukarya), bacteria, and archaea
Ecology definition
study of organisms interacting with each other and the environment
Basic definition of evolution
descent with modification
natural selection definition
organisms that have certain favorable traits are better able to survive and reproduce successfully than organisms that lack these traits
Adaptations definition
traits that improve an individuals ability to survive and reproduce successfully
The interdependence of organisms is one of the seven unifying themes of biology. The study of the interactions between organisms and their environment is called...
ecology
Common steps for scientific method
observation, hypothesis, prediction of results, experiment, analysis of data, draw conclusions, peer review
theory definition
highly tested, generally accepted principle that explains a vast number of observations
peer review definition
scientists who are experts in the field review and critique papers anonymously.
Most scientists begin their investigations by making a(n)...
observation
Four major parts of compound light microscope
eyepiece, objective lens, stage, light source.
Electron microscope
beam of electrons produces an enlarged and more powerful magnification than light microscope. Two types: transmission and scanning
Which of the following microscopes can be used to view living organisms: compounds light microscope, transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, all of the above
compound light microscope: Very small organisms can be placed on the stage of an LM for viewing. Larger specimens cannot be viewed alive because they would have to be sliced thinly for viewing.
A light microscope with a 10X ocular lens and a 30X objective lens would have a power of magnification of...
300x
Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Difference between mass and weight
mass is the quantity of matter in an object and weight is mass x gravity
elements
Cannot be broken down into any other simpler substance
What is the atomic number of an element
the number of protons in an atom
orbital
a region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons
Isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different number of neutrons
compounds
made of two or more elements; formed by chemical reaction; represented by a formula
When is an atom chemically stable
when its outer energy level is complete (filled with the maximum number of electrons)
covalent bond
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
molecule
smallest unit of most compounds that displays all the properties of that compound
ionic bonds
formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
What is the difference between ionic bonds and covalent bonds?
In ionic bonding, an ion with a positive charge is attracted to an ion with a negative charge. In covalent bonding, atoms share electron pairs to fill their outer electron levels.
energy definition
ability to do work, can be in the following forms: thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical
how do you change the state of a substance
apply thermal energy
chemical reaction
A change in which one or more substances are converted into new substances.
reactants
A starting material in a chemical reaction, left side of a one-sided reaction
products
The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction, right side of a one-sided reaction
activation energy
Energy needed to get a reaction started
catalysts
A material that increases the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy
what act as catalysts in living things' chemical reactions
enzymes
redox reaction
one reactant loses electrons (oxidation reaction, reactant becomes positively charged) and another gains electrons (reduction reaction, reactant becomes negatively charged)
Free energy, in a biological sense, is energy that...
...is available for work within a system
When water freezes, the process...
gives of thermal heat. Changes of matter from a higher energy state, such as liquid, to a lower energy state, such as ice, release heat.
polarity
Molecules having uneven distribution of charges. + for positively charged portion (like hydrogen in H20) and - for negatively charged portion (like oxygen in H20)
Polarity of water allows for...
water molecules to be attracted to one another through hydrogen bonding, water molecules to dissolve other polar compounds.
hydrogen bonding
Bonds between hydrogen atom in water and another negatively charged atom from another molecule (usually other water molecules)
surface tension
results from the cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water
cohesion versus adhesion
Cohesion - water sticking to water

Adhesion - water sticking to other surfaces
specific heat
the amount of heat necessary to increase the
temperature of a substance, The amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temp. by 1°c
solution
type of mixture in which all the components are evenly distributed, but the chemicals remain unchanged
solute
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
solvent
In a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves.
concentration of solution
the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent
saturated solution
a solution that cannot dissolve any more solute under the given conditions
aqueous solutions
solutions in which water is the solvent
when is a solution neutral
if the number of hydronium (H30+) and hydroxide ions (OH-) are the same in a solution.
acid
a solution with more hydrogen ions (H+) than hydroxide ions (OH-); having a pH less than 7
base
a solution with more hydroxide ions (OH-) than hydronium ions; having a pH more than 7
what does the change of 1 pH unit mean
a 10-fold change in the alkalinity or acidity
buffers
mixtures that can react with acids or bases to keep the pH within a particular range so that enzymes can work and reactions can occur.
The dissociation of water is the....
...breaking apart of water molecules into the ions H+ and OH-.
On the pH scale, a 10 mL solution with a pH value of 4 has ____________ as many ____________ ions as a 10 mL solution with a pH of 5 does.
10 times the amount of hydronium/hydrogen ions
organic compounds
compounds that contain carbon
what does each line mean in a chemical shorthand
each line is a covalent bond. multiple by two to show how many electrons are being shared
functional groups
a cluster of atoms attached to an organic compound that determine the characteristics of the compound.
monomers
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
macromolecules
GIANT molecules that form carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins
condensation reaction
build polymers from monomers (each time a monomer adds to a polymer, a water molecule is released)
hydrolysis
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water... the reverse of a condensation reaction
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work. Adenine, five-carbon sugar, and three phosphate groups.
Hydrolysis of ATP
ATP + H2O = ADP + P + energy. Diphosphate
Which of the following is not one of the elements that is commonly found in organic compounds: hydrogen, sodium, oxygen, nitrogen
Sodium plays an important role in many cellular processes, but it is found most often as a dissociated ion, Na+, not as a component of organic compounds.
What is the difference between a condensation reaction and hydrolysis?
In a condensation reaction, monomers bond together to form a polymer, which releases water. In hydrolysis, polymers are broken apart with the addition of water.
Which of the following provides the energy that drives most of the chemical reactions within an organism: condensation of ATP, condensation of ADP, hydrolysis of ATP, hydrolysis of ADP?
Hydrolysis of ATP: When the bond between the second and third phosphate group of ATP is broken by hydrolysis, it releases energy. This energy drives most of the cellular reactions that require energy.
four main classes of organic compounds
carbohydrates, proteins ,lipids, nucleic acids
carbohydrates
1 carbon, to 1 oxygen, to 2 hydrogens.
monosaccharides
monomer of a carbohydrate. CH20
glucose, fructose, galactose
Structure of monosaccharides
all have same formula but different structures, so they are isomers
isomer
Compounds with the same formula but different structures, like glucose, fructose, galactose
polysaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
proteins
mostly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
amino acids
monomers of proteins, 20 different ones.

structure is a central carbon with four bonded molecules (single hydrogen, carboxyl group, amino group, and an R group)
R group
a functional group that defines a particular amino acid and gives it special properties.
Dipeptide
Two amino acids bonded together (peptide bond) through a condensation reaction
polypeptide
long chain of amino acids that makes proteins
enzymes
proteins that act as biological catalysts. can be used many times (As it is not changed) but only in the right environment
substrate
A specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme
active site
The part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs. where the substrate and enzyme connect/link
lipids
non-polar organic molecules, therefore do not dissolve in water. Higher ratio of carbon and hydrogen than oxygen.
fatty acid
chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms that make up lipids.
unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid in which some carbons are bonded via double bonds to other carbon atoms so they still have opportunities to bond with more hydrogens and are therefore not saturated.
three classes of lipids
triglycerides, phospholipids, waxes
triglycerides
organic compound, a true fat, that is made of one glycerol and three fatty acids
phospholipids
a lipid consisting of a glycerol bound to two fatty acids and a phosphate group.
waxes
made of long-chain alcohols +fatty acids

HIGHLY non-polar

used for protection
nucleic acids
polymers of nucleotides containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus. store and transfer important information in the cell.

DNA and RNA are the two most important
nucleotides
monomers of nucleic acids, contains three components: nitrogenous base, five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group
Which of the following represents the proper carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen ratios of a six-carbon monosaccharide: C6H12O12, C6H6O6, C6H6O12, C6H12O6
C6H12O6
How do amino acids determine the structure of proteins?
The different chemical properties of the R groups determine the folding and bonding between different amino acids. Each of the 20 amino acids consists of a central carbon atom with four functional groups. Three of the functional groups are the same, but the R group is different for each.
Which of the following represents the carboxyl group of all amino acids: -OH, -NH2, -COOH, -CH3
COOH, The functional group -COOH is called a carboxyl group. The carbon atom is bonded to a hydroxyl group and is also linked to an oxygen atom with a double bond.
The bonds that hold the amino acids together in a protein are called ____________ bonds.
peptide
cell
Basic unit of life
Molecular differences between carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Carbohydrates always have a 1 to 2 to 1 ratio of oxygen hydrogen and carbon. Lipids always have a high concentration of carbon and hydrogen. Proteins always have carbon oxygen hydrogen and nitrogen. Nucleic acids always have carbon oxygen hydrogen and nitrogen and phosphorus
What are the differences between isomer, ion, and isotope
An ion is a positively or negatively charged atom, due to the loss of electrons. Isomers are chemicals who's formulas are the same but whose structures are different and therefore have different properties, such as the three basic monosaccharides. An isotope is an atom that has the correct number of protons for the element but a different number of neutrons.
Hooke and cork slices
Hooke observed a slice of cork and noticed that there were structures that looked like monk's cells. he was observing dead plants cells (cellular walls)
Leeuwenhoek
First to observe living cells
cell theory (3 principles)
all living things are composed of cells (either one or more)
cells are the basic unit of structure and functions
cells come only from the reproduction of other cells
The first person to view single-celled organisms through a microscope was...
Leeuwenhoeke
Which of the following is not part of the cell theory: a) all organisms are composed of one or more cells, b) all cells are surrounded by a cell wall, c) the cell is the basic unit of life, d) all cells come from existing cells?
b) all cells are surrounded by a cell wall (not even factual)
The organs of an organism can be compared to the ____________ of a cell.
organelles
What is the most notable feature found in eukaryotic cells but missing in prokaryotic cells?
a nucleus
Which exchange substances quicker: large cells, small cells?
small cells, because there is a greater surface area to volume ration than large cells... this is why most cells are small.
Three basic features of all cells
Outer boundary (plasma membrane or wall), inner substance (cytoplasm, cytosol), and control area (nucleus)
plasma membrane
or cell membrane, the cell's outer boundary. all materials enter or exit through the membrane
cytoplasm
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Two basic types of cells
eukaryotic and prokaryotic
prokaryotic
An organism whose cells do not have an enclosed nucleus, such as bacteria. (membrane-bound nucleus)
nucleoid
A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell. (the prokaryote version of nucleus)
eukaryote
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
cellular organization
cell > tissue > organ > organ system > organism
colonial organism
a collection of genetically identical cells that live together in a connected group (not truly multicellular, cause there is no cellular differentiation, just same/similar cells living together)
functions of plasma membrane
Cell communication, transport of substances in and out of cell, cell adhesion.
phospholipid bilayer
A double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma and organelle membranes. Hydrophobic because phosphate heads point out towards cytoplasm water and fatty acids point inward)
integral proteins
proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer.
role of integral proteins
transporting molecules or chemical messages into cell
fluid mosaic model
The membrane is a mosaic of protein molecules bobbing in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.... like boats in an ocean...they are not static or stuck
nucleoplasm
Fluid inside the nucleus
nucleoplasm versus cytoplasm
cytoplasm is fluid inside cell (cyto=cell), nucleoplasm is fluid inside nucleus (nucleo = nucleus)
chromatin versus chromosomes
Chromatin is a relaxed form of DNA. Chromosomes is a tight in the form of DNA (preparing for replication)
nuclear envelope
layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell (and has holes that have proteins, called nuclear pores... which are like integral proteins in the cell membrane)
nucleolus
small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of proteins begins
differences between nucleus, nucleolus, nucleoid, nucleic acids, nucleotides, nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, and nucleoplasm
nucleus = organelle name
nucleolus = dense area in nucleus where ribosomes exist
nucleic acids = DNA and RNA, polymers of nucleotides
nucleotides = A, C, G, T, the monomers of nucleotides
nuclear envelope = double membrane surrounding nucleus
nuclear pores = similar to integral proteins, holes in which proteins exist
nucleoplasm = fluid inside nucleus
mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production... active cells have many mitochondria, lazy cells have a lot less.
Mitochondria have their own...
DNA... this is an example of endosymbiosis
ribosomes
Tiny organelles that link amino acids together to form proteins
endoplasmic reticulum
A highly folded membrane that is the site of protein synthesis
rough endoplasmic reticulum
Contains ribosomes; proteins are manufactured here.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Transports and modifies organelles, highway for cell. Processes lipids, fats and such. Very little in most cells.
Golgi apparatus
synthesis, packages and releases concentrate proteins or lipids... "address labels" given to proteins for direction to other parts of the cells
vesicles
small membrane sacs that specialize in moving products into, out of, and within a cell
lysosomes
An vesicle/organelle containing digestive enzymes that break down macromolecules. Also destroy cells that are damaged or no longer functioning properly.
peroxisomes
small vesicles/organelles similar to lysosomes that can oxidize and decompose
Steps of protein synthesis
1) assembled by ribosomes on rough er
2) vesicles transport to Golgi apparatus
3) Golgi modifies and packages proteins in new vesicles
4) vesicles release proteins that have destinations outside of cell
cytoskeleton
supports structure from inside the cell and helps move synthesized proteins
microtubules
thin, hollow cylinders made of proteins that make up the cytoskeleton
microfilaments
Fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton; help movements
intermediate filaments
protein fibers that provide stability of shape
cilia
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
flagella
Whip-like structures that help with cell movement
Why do the lipids of a cell membrane form two layers?
The environment of both the inside and the outside of the cell is watery. The watery conditions cause the lipids to form two layers.
The cell membrane is described as selectively permeable because the membrane...
allows some substances to pass through easily and prevents other substances from passing through.
Energy from organic compounds is transferred to ATP in the...
mitochondria.. The oxygen you breathe helps the mitochondria of your cells make ATP, which is the "fuel" for all cellular functions.
Portions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) called ____________ give the ER a rough appearance.
Ribosomes.... Some ribosomes are attached to the ER, while others are found in the cytoplasm. Proteins are built on the attached ribosomes and are transported by the rough ER.
Without ____________, a tadpole could not turn into a frog and you would still have webbing between your fingers.
Lysosomes.... Lysosomes are special vesicles containing enzymes that digest food particles, wastes, invaders, and even entire cells.
Most nuclei contain at least one spherical area called the...
Nucleolus...Most nuclei contain at least one nucleolus, in which ribosomes are partially assembled before they move to the cytosol.
three plant cell structures not found in animal cells
plastids, central vacuoles, cell walls
cell wall
In a PLANT cell, outside of plasma membrane. Contain cellulose. Helps protect and support the cell. Gives a plant cell a shape.
central vacuole
only in plants, makes up 90% of the cells volume;
Storage for water and other substances
Plants have one large central vacuole
plastids
organelles that are surrounded by a double membrane and contain their own DNA (another support for endosymbiosis)
three plastids
chloroplasts, chromoplasts, leucoplasts
chloroplast
a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
chromoplasts
Plastids that contain pigments involved in photosynthesis (red, orange, yellow).
leucoplasts
Plastids/Organelles that store starches or oils for plants