83 terms

Praxis II: English Language Arts: Content Knowledge (5038) Language Use & Vocab

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Phonetics
The study of the sounds of language and their physical properties
Phonology
The analysis of how sounds function in a language or dialect
Morphology
The study of the structure of words
Semantics
The study of the meaning in language
Syntax
The study of the structure of sentences
Pragmatics
The role of context in the interpretation of meaning
Sociolinguistics
Studying language as it relates to society, including race, class, gender, and age
Ethnolinguistics
Studying language as it relates to culture behavior.
Frequently associated with minority linguictic groups within the larger culture
Psycholinguistics
Studying language as it relates to the psychological and neurological factors that enable humans to learn language
Dialect
A variation of language that is a characteristic of a particular group.
Creole
A stable, natural language developed from mixing parent languages.
Pidgin
Simplified language used as a means of communication between two or more groups that do not have a language in common.
Regionalism
Words or phrases used in common by population in a particular region.
Vernacular Language
The dialect, or normal spoken form of language, of a specific population.
Nonstandard Language
"Why you no cooperate with me, huh?"
Unnatural Language
"Thou art so lame."
Subject
Who or what the sentence is about
Predicate
Rest of sentence or clause that is not the subject, usually has a verb/action
Noun
Thing or Person
Pronoun
Replaces a noun

I, me, he, she, herself, you, it, that, they, each, few, many, who, whoever, whose, someone, everybody, etc.
Pronoun Shift
When a writer begins by using a particular type of pronoun then shifts abruptly to using a different type of pronoun.

Ex. A person who drives an older car would do well to keep a set of jumper cables in the trunk, in the event that your car suddenly refuses to start.
Verb
Action or State
Infinitive
Is the most basic form of the verb and is usually preceded by the preposition "to."

Ex. to read, to write, to illustrate
Split Infinitive
Occurs when a word (usually an adverb) is put between "to" and the verb.

Ex. Mark decided to hastily clean the house before his parents returned.
Linking Verb/Connecting verb
Does not express action.
Connects the subject with a word that gives information about the subject.

Ex. She appears upset about the announcement
Helping Verb/Auxiliary verb
A verb used in forming the tenses, moods, and voices of other verbs.
They always precede main verbs.

Be: am, is, are, was, were, being, been
Do: does, do, did
Have: has, have, had, having

Ex. I [have been] sitting here since 7 o'clock.
Transitive Verb
First, it is an action verb, expressing a doable activity.
Second, it must have a direct object who receives the action of the verb.

Ex. Sylvia kicked Juan under the table.

Kicked = transitive verb; Juan = direct object.
Intransitive Verb
First, it is an action verb, expressing a doable activity.
Second, it will not have a direct object receiving the action.

Ex. Around fresh ground pepper, Sheryl sneezes with violence.

Sneezes = intransitive verb.
Clause
Contains both a subject and a predicate

Typically contains at least a subject noun phrase and a finite verb.

Ex. My dog loves pizza crusts.

Dog = subject; loves = verb.
Phrase
Two or more words that do not contain the subject-verb pair necessary to form a clause.

Ex. A great English teacher
Adjective
Describes a Noun.

Asks What kind, Which one, or How many
Adverb
Describes a verb, adjective, or adverb.
Asks How, When, or Where
Preposition
Words that indicate location
Object
Word or group of words which receives the action of a verb
Asyndeton
Omits conjunctions between parts of the sentence.

Ex. He was a bag of bones, a floppy doll, a broken stick, a maniac.
Adverbial Clause
Also knows as a subordinate clause. A dependent clause that functions as an adverb.

Ex. Tommy scrubbed the bathroom tile until his arms ached.

How did Tommy scrub? Until his arms ached, an adverb clause.
Relative Pronoun
who, whom, which, whoever, whomever, whichever, and that
Prepositional Phrase
Prepositions and objects and modifiers
Verbal Phrase
Composed of at least one verb and its dependents—objects, complements and other modifiers—but not always including the subject.
Infinitive Phrases
It will begin with an infinitive [to + simple form of the verb]. It will include objects and/or modifiers.
Infinitive phrases can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.

Ex. Lakesha hopes to win the approval of her mother by switching her major from fine arts to pre-med.

To win the approval of her mother functions as a noun because it is the direct object for the verb hopes.
Gerund Phrase
Begins with a gerund, an ing word, and will include other modifiers and/or objects.
Gerund phrases always function as nouns, so they will be subjects, subject complements, or objects in the sentence.

Ex. Eating ice cream on a windy day can be a messy experience if you have long, untamed hair.

Eating ice cream on a windy day = subject of the verb can be
Participial Phrase
Begins with a present or past participle.
If the participle is present, it will dependably end in ing. Likewise, a regular past participle will end in a consistent ed.

Ex. Washed with soap and water
Semicolon (;)
Join independent clauses in compound sentences that do not have conjunctions.
Separates long or complicated items in series that has commas.
Separates 2 long or complex independent clauses joined by coordinating conjunctions.
Colon (:)
After an independent clause that precedes a list.
Separates an explanation, rule, or example from proceeding clause.
After salutation of a business letter, heading of a memo.
Between hours and minutes
Comma Splice
Two independent clauses joined with commas
Sentence Fragment
Incomplete sentences that cannot stand alone.
Not a complete thought.

Ex. Toys of all kinds.
Conjunction
Joins clauses or sentences to words.

Two types: coordinating and subordinating conjunctions
Coordinate Conjunctions
They connect words, phrases, and clauses.

And, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet

Ex. The bowl of oatmeal is hot and delicious.
Subordinate Conjunctions
Connects/transitions independent and dependent clauses.

after, although, as, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order that once, provided that, rather than, since, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, whether, while, why

Ex. Ronnie begins to sneeze violently whenever he opens the door to greet a fresh spring day.

Sneezing violently > opening the door.
Interjection
Short exclamation (!)

Ex. Help! I can't get up.
Simple Sentence
Contains only one independent clause, a subject and a verb, and expresses a complete thought.

Ex. Mom went to the store.
Compound Sentence
Contains at least two independent clauses, which are joined by a conjuction.

Ex. They got there early, and they got really good seats
Complex Sentence
Has one independent clause and one+ dependent clauses.

Ex. Because my coffee was too cold, I heated it in the microwave
Compound Complex Sentence
Has two+ independent clauses and at least one dependent clauses.

Ex. While Tom reads novels, Jack reads comics, but Sam only reads magazines.
Run-On Sentence
Two or more main clauses that are run together without proper punctuation

Ex. I saw the cat and played with it and then went inside my house to get some food for it and then I gave the cat some food.
Conditional Sentence
A sentence that expresses wishes or conditions contrary to fact.

Ex. If you were to hang onto the basketball rim, then you could experience the glory of every NBA player.
Stilted Sentence
Acceptable sentences ending with a preposition.
Trick: If you take the preposition off the end of the sentence and it still makes sense, it is not a stilted sentence.

Ex. Let's kiss and make up.
Inconsistent Verb Tense
"I ate carrots, washed the dishes, and was studying today."
Pronoun Reference Problem
Pronouns should refer clearly to one particular noun.

Wrong: After putting the disc in the cabinet, Katie sold it. What is it referring to..the disc or cabinet.
Correct: After buying some discs, Katie put them in the cabinet.
Parallel Structure
Ex. Mary likes hiking, swimming, and bicycling.
Non-parallel Structure
Ex. Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle
Nominative Case
Noun that can be the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective.

Ex. Mark eats cakes. The noun Mark is the subject of the verb eats. Mark is in the nominative case.
Possessive Case
Nouns, pronouns, and adjectives that shows possession or ownership.

Possessive Nouns: shown by adding 's or just ' to the end.
Possessive Pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, and theirs.
Possessive Adjectives: my, your, his, her, its, our, and their.
Objective Case
Nouns and pronouns that function as objects.
They can be a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition.
Prefix
Appears before the stem.

Ex. re- in redo
Ex. un- in unthinkable
Suffix
Appears after the stem.

Ex. sadly uses -ly
Ex. smokeless uses -less
Suffix -oid
Appears after the stem, but is only partially bound to it indicating likeness, resemblance, or similarity.

Ex. Asteroid - Like a star
Infix
An affix inserted inside a word stem.

Ex. Abso-freakin-lutely
Circumfix
Affixes that "surround" the stem, attaching to the beginning and end of the stem (word).

Ex. en- -en in enlighten
Ex. a- -ing in a-flying
Interfix
Links two stems together in a compound.

Ex. speed-o-meter
Duplifix
Incorporating a reduplicated portion of a stem that may occur in front, at the back, or inside the basic form of a word.

Ex. Razzle-dazzle
Ex. Super-duper
Simulfix
Changes a segment of a stem in order to modify the meaning.

Ex. foot → feet
Ex. man → men
Letter
A writing format that allows students to share their writing with an audience that has the power to bring about change.
Functional Texts
Purpose is to inform. It includes lists and instructions
Expository Texts
Purpose is to inform. Cause and effect
Dictionary
A book or electronic resource that lists the words of a language (typically in alphabetical order) and gives their meaning, or gives the equivalent words in a different language, often also providing information about pronunciation, origin, and usage.
Thesaurus
A book that lists words in groups of synonyms and related concepts.
Glossary
An alphabetical list of terms or words found in or relating to a specific subject, text, or dialect, with explanations.
Grammar Guide
A resources on grammar topics and how to use correct grammar in your writing.
Style Mannual
A set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization, or field.
Encyclopedia
A book or set of books giving information on many subjects or on many aspects of one subject and typically arranged alphabetically.
Almanac
An annual calendar containing important dates and statistical information such as astronomical data and tide tables.
MLA Format Example
Jones believes that Vivaldi deserves credit for more than just his prolific output (157).

Since the author's name is in the text, it is not used in the reference. The page number follows the information, but comes before the period.