Praxis II: English Language Arts: Content Knowledge (5038) Literary Terms
Praxis Test 5038
Terms in this set (147)
Literature in the form of prose, especially short stories and novels, that describes imaginary events and people.
Creative nonfiction that uses literary styles and techniques to create factually accurate narratives
Information based on fact that is presented in a format which tells a story
A literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past
A story that can actually happen and is true to real life
Grotesque, violent, mysterious, and supernatural
Fiction based on imagined future scientific or technological advances and major social or environmental changes. Frequently portrays space or time travel and life on other planets.
An account of imaginary or real people and events told for entertainment
An exciting, emotional, or unexpected series of events or set of circumstances. The main character sustains the action in the plot while the antagonist serves as the opposing element through the plot.
A literary work in which special intensity is given to the expression of feelings and ideas by the use of distinctive style and rhythm
A short piece of writing on a particular subject
Gives the history of a person's life, written or told by that person.
An account of someone's life written by someone else
A story in which each aspect of the story has a symbolic meaning outside the tale itself. It can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning.
A type of fiction in which a detective or other professional solves a crime or series of crimes
Novel written in the form of letters
A literary work that criticizes human misconduct through humor or irony.
A tale circulated by word of mouth among the common folk. Have a moral or teach a lesson. Rule of three
Usually begins with "Once upon a time..."
Fantasy, Good vs. Evil, Magical, Happy Endings, Teach a lesson or have a theme
The forming of mental images with strange or other worldly settings or characters
A humorous story with blatant exaggerations, swaggering heroes who do the impossible.
Story told as if they are a fact. Usually have gods and goddesses with supernatural powers. Deal with creation of the world and natural events. Provide lessons about good and bad behavior. Explains something the teller or listener does not understand.
A brief story with a moral. Often uses animals that act and speak like human beings.
Ex. Animal Farm by George Orwell
Fictional stories that have some historical truth. Exaggeration in retelling of deeds. Heroes give up dreams and happiness to help others in need.
Typically satires or parodies that mock common Classical stereotypes of heroes and heroic literature
A formal statement testifying to someone's character and qualifications.
Three unrhymed lines (5, 7, 5 syllables). Usually focusing on nature.
Also known as a persona poem, is a type of poetry written in the form of a speech of an individual character.
Written or spoken language in its ordinary form
A distinct section of a piece of writing, usually dealing with a single theme and indicated by a new line, indentation, or numbering.
A group of lines forming the basic recurring metrical unit in a poem
a poem of fourteen lines using any of a number of formal rhyme schemes, in English typically having ten syllables per line.
presents reality in specific detail - how the world really is.
It's an underlining message, or big idea in a story.
They are developed by what the writer believes about life. If a writer has a belief system or feels strongly about certain things then, those strong life views will be reflected in his or her writing. For a work to last, it needs depth.
Traditional Story Themes
Heroism, Loyalty, Love, Greed
A theme in which the main character undertakes a dangerous journey and triumphs
Life and death
Fate and free will
Origin of bad
Meaning of life
Describing or creation of a character in a story or drama.
Reveals personality of character
Time, place, and mood of events in a story
Evokes certain feelings or emotions in readers through words and descriptions. Atmosphere of literary piece
Attitude of writer toward a subject or audience.
Ex. formal, informal, serious, comic, sarcastic, sad, and cheerful
Vision of writer.
General attitude toward the world
Point of View
The position from which something or someone is observed
First-Person Point of View
A character in the story is actually telling the story to the reader.
Second Person Point of View
The narrator tells the story to another character using 'you'
The narrator tells a story without describing any character's thoughts, opinions, or feelings; instead, it gives an unbiased point of view.
Third-Person Limited Point of View
An external narrator. Know the thoughts and feelings of one character and presents only the actions of the other characters.
Third-Person Omniscient Point of View
An external narrator. Writer is not in the story but knows and describes all the character's thoughts and ideas
The main events of a play, novel, movie, or similar work
ideas are presented in the order in which they occurred in time. Words and phrases such as "Weeks before," "When," "Then," and "In the months that followed" relate events sequentially.
relating to, occupying, or having the character of space. The words "next to" and "adjacent" are typical of the kinds of words used in descriptions of spatial relationships.
Order of Importance
In this pattern the information is given either from the least important feature to the most important, or from the most important to the least important. This pattern is also known as hierarchical or chain of command.
Cause and Effect
Usually (but not always) happen in time order: The cause comes first, creating an effect. This pattern describes or discusses an event or action that is caused by another event or action. On occasion, this pattern is also referred to as result.
The leading character or one of the major characters in a drama, movie, novel, or other fictional text.
A person who actively opposes or is hostile to someone or something.
A repetition of the same sound or phrase. Largely developed through poetry.
A reference to a place, person, or something that happened. Can be direct or inferred.
A literal comparison between two things that have some similar features and some different features
Addressing an object or idea that is not physically present.
A direct comparison using "like" or "as"
Implied or hidden comparison not using "like" or "as"
A comparison between two unlike things that continues throughout a series of sentences in a paragraph or lines in a poem
Giving human traits to an animal, thing, or idea; an act of giving human characteristics to animals or objects to create imager
Exaggeration of ideas for sake of emphasis.
Humorous effect created by overstatement.
A scene set in a time earlier than the main story
Advance hint of what is to come later in the story
The use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities.
Intended meaning is different from actual meaning.
Difference between appearance and reality
Contrast between what is said and what is meant
Occurs when the audience knows something the characters do not
Occurs when the expected outcome does not happen
Represent objects, actions and ideas that appeal to our physical senses.
Ex. He could hear the footsteps of doom nearing
Words that sound like the sound they represent.
Ex. Boom, splash, clatter, thud
Two contradicting items.
Ex. Pretty ugly and Awfully delicious
A common, often used expression that doesn't make sense if you take it literally.
Ex. A chip on your shoulder. Rub someone the wrong way.
A recurring subject, theme, idea, etc. in a literary work.
Saying one thing but meaning another
A disappointing end to an exciting or impressive series of events. A drop from an important idea.
A note of explanation or comment added to a text
a very typical example of a certain person or thing.
Spoken directly to the audience by one character for the purpose of giving them knowledge that is not shared with the other character
an absurd or comically exaggerated imitation of something, especially in a literary or dramatic work; a parody.
The "turning downward" of a plot in a tragedy.
Usually in the 4th act after the climax.
Events that bring about a moral or spiritual renewal. Relief from tension.
A figure of speech in which two or more clauses are related to each other through a reversal of structures in order to make a larger point.
Ex. One should eat to live, not live to eat.
An overused/worn-out expression or idea
Cultural and emotional meaning attached to word.
What words mean past their literal definition
A repetition where the consonants stay the same, but the vowels change
Definition found in dictionary, literal meaning of word.
the final part of a play, movie, or narrative in which the strands of the plot are drawn together and matters are explained or resolved.
When there are similar components of grammatical structure in a sentence.
Also same in length.
Ex. Like father, like son.
Ex. Easy come, easy go.
A self-contradictory statement that expresses possible truth.
Ex. "All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others."
An external representation of oneself (ego).
A speech given by a character who believes to be alone. What the character says is what they're truly thinking.
Key component of multiple genres.
Usually based on literary or social stereotypes.
Recurring in many works.
Part of an object represents a whole or vice versa.
Ironic refusal of something that one wants or denial of something about a person that is not true
concise statement that contains a general truth
Ex. Don't fix what isn't broken.
Type of parallelism.
When two opposite phrases or ideas are put together in a sentence for a contrasting effect.
Ex. Give me liberty or give me death
The attribution of human characteristics or behavior to a god, animal, or object. Aims to make an animal or object behave and appear like they are human beings.
A word that changes its meaning when it is capitalized
word that can mean the opposite of itself
Ex. clip (attach to)
clip (cut off from)
Inoffensive ways of saying something offensive
Ex. Passed away instead of died
Background information that usually provides insight.
Study of history of words
Spelled the same, but different pronunciation and meaning.
Ex. Don't desert me here in the desert
An extended metaphor associated with poetry that pushes the reader to imagine something indescribeable
Using an object to embody an idea or something it's associated with.
Ex. The suits were at a meaning. Here suits is referring to businessmen. Or Let me give you a hand. Here hand is referring to help.
Smallest unit of meaning in a language. A mixture of sounds that have a meaning
Study of meaning of language
Single word in two different senses at once
e.g. Caught the train and a bad cold
Using a single verb to refer to two different objects in an unusual way. A word that applies to multiple parts of the sentence.
Ex. Kill the boys and the luggage
Inverted order of words or events as a rhetorical scheme.
e.g. Yoda speak
Persuasive speaking or writing, use of figures of speech and other compositional techniques
Methods of Appeal for Persuasion
Expert Opinion: a person who has extensive skill or knowledge in a particular field
Generalization: a general statement or concept obtained by inference from specific cases
Testimonial: a formal statement testifying to someone's character and qualifications
is language that is difficult for most people to understand because it is connected with one particular subject or used in one particular job
Not relating to, characteristic of, or skilled in a particular field of activity and its terminology
Heavily used by Emily Dickinson
designed to imitate natural speech where the first syllable is stressed followed by a variable number of unstressed syllables
a line of verse that ends with an unstressed syllable
One syllable words to give the feeling of strength
Unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable.
The pattern of syllables in a line of poetry.
The first is stressed, and the second and third are unstressed
/ u u
A pause. Sometimes signified by a splash or a comma in poetry.
A 4-line stanza
The last six lines of an Italian Sonnet
2 unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable
A five line poem in which lines 1, 2 and 5 rhyme and lines 3 and 4 rhyme
AABBA rhyme pattern
The art of scanning a poem to determine it's meter.
A pair of rhymed lines that may or may not constitute a separate stanza in a poem
Poetry that does not rhyme or have a regular meter.
Unrhymed iambic pentameter.
Lines of 10 syllables that don't rhyme.
Each even-numbered syllable has an accent.
A rhyming stanza form introduced into English poetry by Geoffrey Chaucer.
7-line stanzas of 10 syllables.
Fixed rhyme scheme.
A 15 line poem made up of 3 stanzas and only two rhymes throughout the poem.
Consists of an octave (8 lines) followed by a sestet (6 lines).
An arrangement of words is as important as more traditional poetic elements
A structural division of a poem containing stanzas of varying line-length, especially an ode or free verse poem.
The part of an ancient Greek choral ode sung by the chorus when moving from right to left.
Main section of a long poem
When a poet runs a clause beyond the end of a verse to complete thoughts
A fixed verse 9-line stanza.
The first eight lines are iambic pentameter followed by a single 'alexandrine' line in iambic hexameter.
Comprising of 12 syllables.
Invented by Edmund Spenser for his poem The Faerie Queene.
3-line stanza form with interlocking rhymes that move from one stanza to the next. ABA BCB CDC
The first is stressed and the second is unstressed
a poem or song narrating a story in short stanzas - usually four line stanzas - and narrated in a direct style. (ABCB Rhyme Scheme)