Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley, Keats (Also Keats); Propose notion of unified romanticism on the basis of their works
Even closest collaborators (Wordsworth and Coleridge) combined would not fit single definition of romanticism
Byron despised what about Coleridge and Wordsworth?
Metaphysics (Coleridge) and Wordsworth's Theory and Practice of Poetry
Which two poets were on opposite poles of another?
Shelley and Keats (opposite stylistically and philosophically)
Who was not like any of the other five?
Writers of the period did not think of themselves as....
When was term "Romantics" applied?
Applied 50 years later, by literary critics
How were the poets divided?
Individually or grouped into "school" (by contemporaries)
"The Lake School"
Wordsworth and Coleridge, and Robert Southey
"The Cockney School"
Derogatory term for Londoners KEATS, HUNT, and HAZLITT
"The Satanic School"
Byron and Shelley
Who published a book of essays called "The Spirit of the Age"?
William Hazlitt, described how in its early youth the French Revolution seemed "the dawn of a new era"
Hazlitt said that poetry of Wordsworth and Coleridge had origins in...?
French Revolution, and that period promised a renewal of the world and of letters.
Poetic Theory/Poetic Practice
1. The Concept of Poetry and the Poet 2. Poetic Spontaneity and Freedom 3. Romantic 'Nature Poetry' 4. The Glorification of the ordinary and the outcast
The Concept of Poetry and the Poet
-Idea that peotry expresses poet's own feelings and temperament. -Lyrical poetry was written in first person (became the romantic form) -Experiences and states of mind expressed by the lyric speaker accorded with the known facts of the poet's life and personal confessions in poet's letters and journals.
Poetic Spontaneity and Freedom
WORDSWORTH defined good poetry as not merely the overflow but as "the spontaneous overflow of feelings."
-emphasis was on the free activity of the imagination, relating to the essential role of instinct, intuition, and the "feelings of the heart" to supplement logic "faculty of the head."
Romantic "Nature Poetry"
Prominence of landscape in poetry -Romantic poetry became synonymous with "nature poetry." -Aim of the poetry was not description for own sake, but landscape contained HUMAN LIFE, PASSION, AND EXPRESSIVENESS
Glorification of the Ordinary and the Outcast
-Wordsworth stated that aim was "to choose incidents and situations from common life" and to use a "selection of langauge really spoken by men" -model of "humble and rustic life" (LYRICAL BALLADS)
-Wordsworth's aim not really realism, but shatter lethargy of tradition and add sense of wonder to everyday, commonplace things
Familiar Essay: Literature became in the period....
People had more ___ _____ to do what?
Leisure time to read and more disposable income to spend on purchase of literature
What allowed/helped production and distribution?
Technological improvements in printing
What was established as a result?
Commercial and Public lending libraries
What changed about magazines?
Took on the modern format, rather than tabloid look of "The Spectator"
What did these new publications do?
Elevated the essay in literary dignity and quality, and compensated the essayist well enough that they could make a living as freelance essayist
Greatest essayists of the period...?
Lamb, Hazlitt, Dequincey
What was the "Familiar Essay?"
Commentary on a non-technical subject written in a relaxed and intimate manner; Flourished to a degree that it paralleled the course of romantic poetry
-Each of three essayists was closely associated the poets and each essayist was personal and their essays were candidly autobiographical, reminiscent, and self-analytical
What did topics range from?
Clerks, Chimney sweeps, poor relations, sports figures, murders, etc.
Because of a licensing act that was not repealed until mid-nineteenth century....
Only 2 theaters remained open for "legitimate" drama (DRURY LANE AND COVENT GARDEN)
-other theaters were restricted to entertainment that did not involve the spoken word (only dancing, pantomime, and musical plays)
Problems with 2 monopoly playhouses...
-large, and ill-lighted -audiences were noisy and unruly -actors played in a grandiose style -plays were blatant (restricted by moral and religious censorship, and tended to be either farce of melodrama)
All major poets idolized...
SHAKESPEARE, tried to write poetic plays ex: Byron's Manfred and Shelley's "Prometheus Unbound"
What was issue with these poets?
They lacked experience with practical theater and were unable to avoid the archaic style and influence of their Elizabethan and Jacobean models.
Story of terror that introduces fabricated monster that represents an individual rejected by society because he is different.
Other than SHelley, the period produced 2 renown novelists...
Jane Austen and Sir Walter Scott
Untouched by poltiical, intellectual, and artistic revolution of that age....
What did Austen do?
Chose to work within her own experience (life of provincial English gentlefolk)
Best works by Austen?
Sense and Sensibility, Northanger Abbey, Mansfield Park, Pride and Prejudice, and Emma
Where did Sir Walter Scott's originality lie?
Combined romantic fiction with history
But what did he sometimes do to the history?
He altered the order of events, but works maintain the spirit of the past and a meticulous accuracy in detail
What did Scott's career begin with?
-Most noted works are "Guy Mannering", "Rob Roy" and "Ivanhoe"
Scott was politically ______ and _______, but his most convincing characters are from?
He was aristocratic and feudal, but characters are from middle and lower classes. (His tradesmen, servants, peasantry, social outcasts and demented old women are each idividuals of particular time, place, class, occupation)
Who traveled to his own drumbeat?
Like Thoreau, Blake also did.
Blake's only formal education was as a....
Who was Blake's patron?
William Haley- tried to transform him into a conventional artist but had little success
What was the event that influenced some of Blake's later poetry
Altercation with some soldiers, particularly John Schofield -Began as shoving match escalated when Schofield accused Blake of seditious statements about king and country (capital offense) -Trial followed and Blake was acquitted, but these characters show up in poetic work as demons
Where did poetic influences come from (for Blake)?
Elizabethans and early 17th century poets.
What did Blake experiment with?
Partial rhymes and unconventional rhythms
How did Blake illustrate his own works?
He used consuming process working on copper plates and hand coloring each design. He sticthced the illsutrations and poems into a book and published them
As a consequence...
There are a very few copies of "Songs of Inocence, Songs of Experience (28 copies), The Book of Thel (16), The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (9)
-Also illustrated the works of Chaucer (pilgrims), the Book of Job, and Dante
Blake called his works...
"visionary and imaginative" and he was deeply religious, a mystic.
Blake considered the old and new testaments as...
"the Great Code of Art"
Did Blake support French Rev.?
Yes, he saw this as necessary violent purification that would redeem human race and the world.
Best works by Blake?
Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience -The Book of Thel -The Marriage of Heaven and Hell -The Four Zoas
Wordsworth was well educated but had no...
Title, wealth, or business, and not interested in entering church service
-Educated at Cambridge
Went to _____ in 1791
Wordsworth went to France to learn the language adn witness what he thought would be beginning of new world order with French Revolution
Through following decade, how does Wordsworth change?
Changes from man of action to one of reflection, and becomes a poet
This period also includes...
His disillusion with the Revolution- the collapse of his hope of perfecting society
In 1795, what happened?
Wordsworth inherited money from a friend that he and his sister (also a writer) take a house together
Where does Wordsworth then live?
Lake District. Befriends Samuel Coleridge
What do the two collaborate on?
"Lyrical Ballads"- publication which marks the beginning of the Romantic Period.
Wordsworth becomes England's....?
What happens in 1805?
His poetic power declines
What happens to Wordsworth political opinions?
Become more conservative and no longer enjoys the esteem of many of his contemporary poets (Byron and Shelley)
Where does Wordsworth focus now lie?
Family and a minor government job he obtains
Which author is the Romantic most associated with nature poetry?
Wordsworth (among best works include "Prelude"- autobiographical)
Wordsworth definition of poetry?
"spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings"
-he best represents the combination of thought and feelings typical of early Romantic poetry
Collaboration with Coleridge....
Not smooth, Coleridge only contributed one work to "Lyrical Ballads"- The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
-Wordsworth includes grudgingly, today it is most read and remembered of the poems contained in publication.