55 terms

Chapter 6- Data: Business Intelligence

STUDY
PLAY
Transactional Information
Encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unit of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks
Analytical Information
Encompasses all organizational information, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of managerial analysis tasks
Real-Time Information
Immediate, up-to-date information
Real-Time System
Provides real-time information in response to requests
Characteristics of Information Quality
Accurate, Complete, Consistent, Unique, and Timely
Data Inconsistency
Occurs when the same data element has different values
Data Integrity Issues
Occurs when a system produces incorrect, inconsistent, or duplicate data
Data Governance
Overall management of the availability, usability, integrity, and security of company data
Database
Maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses)
Database Management System (DBMS)
Creates, reads, updates, and deletes data in a database while controlling access and security
Quert-By-Example Tool
Helps users graphically design the answer to a question against a database; used by managers
Structured Query Language (SQL)
Asks users to write lines of code to answer questions against a database ; usually skills of an MIS professional
Data Element/Data Field
Smallest or basic unit of information
Data Models
Logical data structures that detail the relationships among data elements using graphics or pictures
Metadata
Details about data
Data Dictionary
Complies all of the metadata about the data elements in the data model
Relational Database Model
Stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables
Relational Database Management System
Allows users to create, read, update, and delete data in a relational database
Entity
A person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored
Attribute
The data elements associated with an entity
Record
A collection of related data elements
Primary Key
A field (or groups of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table
Foreign Key
A primary key of one table that appears on attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship among the two tables
Physical View
Deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device
Logical View
Focuses on how individual users logically access information to meet their own particular business needs
Scalability
Refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands
Performance
Measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction
Data Redundancy
Duplication of data, or the storage of the same data in multiple places
Information Integrity
Measure of the quality of information
Integrity Constraints
Rules that help ensure the quality of information; two types of constraints: relational and business
Relational Integrity Constraints
Rules that enforce basic and fundamental information-based constraints
Business-Critical Integrity Constraints
Enforce business rules vital to an organization's success and often require more insight and knowledge than relational integrity constraints
Password
Provides authentication of the user
Access Level
Determines who has access to the different types of information
Access Control
Determines types of user access, such as read-only access
Data-Driven Website
An interactive website kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers using a database
Data-Driven Website Advantages
Easy to: manage content, store large amounts of data, and eliminate human errors
Data Warehouse
A logical collection of information, gathered from many different operation databases, that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks
Extraction, Transformation, and Loading (ETL)
A process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms it using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads it into a data warehouse
Data Mart
A subset of data warehouse information
Dimension
A particular attribute of information
Cube
Common term for the representation of multidimensional information
Information Cleansing/Scrubbing
A process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information
Data Mining
The process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone
Data-Mining Tools
Use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information that predict future behavior and guide decision making
Structured Data
Data that already is in a database or a spreadsheet
Unstructured Data
Data does not exist in a fixed location and can include text documents, PDFs, voice messages, emails
Text Mining
Analyzes unstructured data to find trends and patterns in words and sentences
Web Mining
Analyzes unstructured data associated with website to identify customer behavior and website navigation
Cluster Analysis
A technique used to divide information sets into mutually exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible
Association Detection
Reveals the relationship between variables along with the nature and frequency of the relationships
Market Basket Analysis
Analyzes such items as websites and checkout scanner information to detect customers' buying behavior and predict future behavior by identifying affinities among customers' choices of products and services
Statistical Analysis
Performs such functions as information correlations, distributions, calculations, and variance analysis
Time-Series Information
Time-stamped information collected at a particular frequency
Forecasts
Predictions based on time-series information