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Nervous System Vocabulary 1

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Nervous System
is the master controlling and communicating system of the body
Sensory Input
gathered information; stimuli that the nervous system receives from the external or internal environment
Motor Output
A signal is transmitted to organs that can convert the signals into action
Central Nervous System
consists of the brain and spinal cord. They interpret incoming sensory information and issue instructions
Peripheral Nervous System
the part of the nervous system outside the CNS, consists mainly of the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord
Afferent/Sensory
consists of nerve fibers that convey impulses to the central nervous system from sensory receptors located in various parts of the body
Efferent/Motor
carries impulses from the CNS to effector organs. These impulses activate muscles and glands
Somatic Nervous System
allows us to consciously, or voluntarily, control our skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
regulates events that are automatic, or involuntary, such as the activity of smooth and cardiac muscles and glands
Neuroglia
includes many types of cells that generally support, insulate, and protect the delicate neurons. "Nerve glue"
Astrocytes
abundant star-shaped cells that account for nearly half of the neural tissue. Form a living barrier between capillaries and neurons and play a role in making exchanges between the two
Microglia
spiderlike phagocytes that despose of debris, including dead brain cells and bacteria
Ependymal Cells
these glial cells line the cavities of the brain and the spinal cord. The beating of their cilia helps to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid that fills those cavities and forms a protective cushion around the CNS
Oligodendrocytes
glia that wrap their flat extensions tightly around the nerve fibers, producing fatty insulating coverings called myelin sheaths
Schwann Cells
form the myelin sheaths around nerve fibers that are found in the PNS
Satellite Cells
act as protective, cushioning cells
Cell Body
is the metabolic center of the neuron
Dendrites
neuron processes that convey incoming messages toward the cell body
Axons
generate nerve impulses and typically conduct them away from the cell body