In the demonstration, what does the apple represent?
The deep sea floor
The cross-section below shows an area of the sea floor that is accumulating sediments. Match the type of sediment/feature with the correct letter
D. calcite compensation depth C. mid-ocean ridge F. upwelling, cool water B. calcareous ooze E. siliceous ooze A. abysal clay
This global map shows the distribution of different types of marine sediment (different colors). Match the correct letter to the sediment type listed below.
B. abyssal clay A. siliceous ooze: diatom D. calcareous ooze C. neritic continental lithogenous E. siliceous ooze: radiolarian
On the world ocean pie diagram below, match the percentage to the correct type of sediment
C. siliceous ooze B. calcareous ooze A. abyssal clay
Sediments produced as a result of chemical reactions in seawater are called:
what sediment types is/are included in the pink category labeled "other" on the map?
cosmogenous sediments, hydrogenous sediments
what mechanism is/are responsible for transporting clay to deep ocean basins
wind; slow moving ocean currents
Which statement accurately describes the interaction between a water molecule and sodium chloride as it dissolves?
The negative oxygen end of the water molecule is attracted to the positive sodium ion.
If all the water in the ocean was evaporated and only the solid salt was left behind, how much salt would there be?
enough to form a layer about 500 feet thick that covers all of Earth
Which attributes of the water molecule arise from the unique bend in its geometry?
The hydrogen end has a positive charge, and the oxygen end has a negative charge.
Why does the water molecule have polarity?
Water is geometrically bent to give one side, or pole, a positive charge and the opposite side a negative charge.
Why do ionic compounds dissolve readily in water?
The electrostatic attraction between ions is weakened by the polarity of water
Hydrogen bonds form between neighboring water molecules because of:
The polarity of water molecules
The surface tension of water:
Is relatively high
The basic building blocks of all matter are called ________.
A group of two or more atoms held together by mutually shared electrons are called ________.
Subatomic particles with a positive charge are called ________.
Subatomic particles with a negative charge are called ________.
Subatomic particles with a neutral charge are called ________.
Atoms that have lost or gained one or more electrons are called ________.
Which of the following is not one of the reasons why water is considered a universal solvent?
When the ions separate, they become attracted to identically charged water molecules.
The principal reason that oil and water do not mix, even when shaken, is that oil molecules __________.
are nonpolar whereas water molecules are polar
Of the following properties of water, which is/are caused by the unusual geometry of water molecules?
-Water has cohesion and surface tension. -Water molecules form hydrogen bonds. -Water has the ability to dissolve just about anything. -Water molecules have polarity.
Which statement accurately describes the thermostatic effect of water on climate moderation?
Condensation of snow over the continents has a cooling effect on air temperature. Evaporation in the tropics has a cooling effect on ocean temperature. Sea ice formation has a cooling effect in polar regions. Thunderstorms in the tropics have a cooling effect on ocean temperature. Precipitation at higher latitudes has a cooling effect on climate.
Evaporation in the tropics has a cooling effect on ocean temperature.
The states of matter in which water exists is primarily determined by:
Which property of water causes coastal communities to have only moderate differences in daily highs and lows when compared to inland communities?
high heat capacity
Which of the following best defines heat capacity?
Which of the following best defines heat capacity? The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree Celsius. The direct measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance's molecules. The energy needed to break the intermolecular bonds that hold molecules in place. The energy transfer from one body to another due to a difference in temperature. Weak interactions that become significant when molecules are very close together.
The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.
Which of the following best defines temperature?
-The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree Celsius. -The direct measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance's molecules. -The energy needed to break the intermolecular bonds that hold molecules in place. -The energy transfer from one body to another due to a difference in temperature. -Weak interactions that become significant when molecules are very close together.
The direct measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance's molecules.
Which of the following statements regarding water density is correct?
-Decreasing pressure increases the number of water molecules in a given volume and inhibits the number of ice crystals that can be created. -Decreasing amounts of dissolved substances inhibits the formation of hydrogen bonds, which restricts the number of ice crystals that can form. -Increasing the pressure decreases the temperature of maximum density for freshwater because the formation of bulky ice crystals is inhibited. -Adding dissolved substances increases the temperature of maximum density for water because the formation of less-dense ice crystals is suppressed.
Increasing the pressure decreases the temperature of maximum density for freshwater because the formation of bulky ice crystals is inhibited.
Of the following statements about the density of freshwater and the formation of ice, which is/are true?
-As the temperature of water decreases from 4°C to 0°C, its density decreases. -Water at 2°C is less dense than it is at 4°C. -Ice is less dense than liquid water, which is why ice floats. -Water's maximum density is at 4°C.
the state of matter in which water is densest
the state of matter in which water molecules are most energetic
the state of matter in which water is compressible
the state of matter of steam rising from a hot cup of coffee
the state of matter in which water molecules vibrate about fixed locations
the state of matter of frost on grass
Which of the following statements is true of water in a solid state?
-Water molecules in ice remain in a relatively fixed position and are not as mobile as they are in the liquid state, where there are fewer hydrogen bonds. -It is rigid and forms a three-dimensional crystalline shape.
Why are water molecules in a gas phase able to move rapidly and independently of each other?
There are no hydrogen bonds between water molecules in a gas phase, so each water molecule acts as an individual
What makes water a polar molecule?
It has a positive hydrogen side and a negative oxygen side.
How do hydrogen bonds define the three states of matter in water?
-Water will be a solid if there are hydrogen bonds between all water molecules. -Ice has more hydrogen bonds than water vapor does. -There are no hydrogen bonds when water is in a gas phase. -In liquid water, there are some hydrogen bonds between water molecules that form and break repeatedly
The average salinity of typical seawater is:
Human consumption of which of the following components of seawater helps prevent goiter?
Of the following statements about seawater salinity, which is/are true?
-Seawater salinity averages 35‰. -The two most common dissolved components in seawater are sodium and chloride. -Seawater salinity averages 3.5%.
What common household item is used in this video to demonstrate a technique used by oceanographers to measure seawater salinity?
a light bulb
As shown in the video demonstration, air has _____ electrical conductivity and a metal key has _____ electrical conductivity.
What is allowing electrical current to pass through tap water from one electrode to the other?
the amount of salt (dissolved substances)
In which fluid did the bulb shine the brightest?
the beaker filled with seawater
As demonstrated by the fluids shown in the video, the higher the salinity of a fluid, the __________ the light lit up.
Which process in the hydrologic cycle is most effective at increasing ocean salinity on a global scale?
Sea ice formation does what for salinity?
Increases seawater salinity
Evaporation does what for salinity?
increases seawater salinity
River input does what for salinity?
decreases seawater salinity
Precipitation does what for salinity?
decreases seawater salinity
On an annual basis which of the following fluxes between reservoirs of the hydrologic cycle is the largest?
Ocean to atmosphere
On an annual basis which of the following fluxes between reservoirs of the hydrologic cycle is the smallest?
continent to ocean
Which of the following processes decrease seawater salinity
sea ice melting river runoff precipitation
Which of the following processes increase seawater salinity?
-Sea ice formation -evaporation
Sea ice formation increases the salinity of remaining seawater. true or false?
When sea ice forms, the water molecules preferentially exclude any salt in the water, resulting in ice that is mostly fresh
Which of the following processes can provide fresh drinking water from seawater?
-freeze separation of sea ice -melting of icebergs -distillation of evaporated seawater
Which of the following processes is responsible for the high surface salinities in regions with hot climates?
high rates of evaporation
There is a general trend of decreasing pH with increasing water depth in the ocean. What is the cause of this pattern?
Deeper, colder ocean, water contains more dissolved carbon dioxide, which causes the pH to be lower
Low pH values indicate what?
highly acidic substances
High pH values indicate what? therefore, increasing pH makes it what?
highly alkaline substances; Increasing pH makes it more alkaline
Which of the following substances releases the most hydrogen ions when dissolved in water?
matoes lemon juice blood sodium hydroxide milk
Which of the following substances releases the most hydroxide ions when dissolved in water?
In which of the following substances are there equal numbers of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions?
How much more acidic is a substance with a PH of 2 than a substance with a pH of 5?
1000. multiple by *10
Which of the following statements is/are true regarding acidic and alkaine substance?
-Blood, eggs, and seawater have a similar pH, adding support to the theory that life originally evolved in the ocean -pH is a measure of the concertration of hydrogen ions in a solution
Which of the following processes causes sea surface salinity to increase near the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn?
As the salinity of seawater increases, its:
The density curve for high latitudes shows ________ density at the surface and ________ density at depth.
The salinity curve for low latitudes shows ________ salinity at the surface and ________ salinity at depth.
A layer of rapidly changing density with depth is called a ________.
A layer of rapidly changing temperature with depth is called what?
Of the following statements about seawater properties in high and low latitudes, which is/are true?
-There is a thermocline in low latitudes -there is a halocline in low latitudes -there is a halocline in high latitiues -there is a pycocline in low latitudes
The warmer something is, the less what?
The less dense it will be
The cooler something is,
the more dense it will be
Which of the following best describes the Distillation Method for desalination?
Saltwater is boiled and the water vapor is passed through a cooling condense, where it condenses as freshwater
Which of the following best describes the Electrolysis Method for desalination?
A current is run through positive and negative electrodes in freshwater separated by semipermeable membranes from seawater.
Which of the following best describes the Reverse Osmosis Method for desalination?
water on the salty side of a semipermeable membrane is pushed under high pressure through the membrane to the freshwater side
Which of the following best describes the Freeze Separation Method for desalination?
Seawater is frozen and thawed multiple times, with the salts washed from the ice between each thawing.
The intensity of solar radiation received at lower latitudes (near the equator) compared to higher latitudes (near the poles) is
The average albedo of Earth's surface is about:
Weather (short-term conditions of air temperature, wind speed/direction, precipitation, and atmospheric pressure) occurs because __________.
Earth's surface is heated unevenly by the Sun
The percentage of solar radiation reflected from the surface of Earth back into space is known as the __________.
Of the following statements about the tilt of Earth's axis, which one is true?
An increase in Earth's tilt would cause colder winters and warmer summers.
Why is it colder in winter than in summer?
When the Northern or Southern Hemisphere of Earth is tilted away from the sun it is winter because that part of Earth receives less direct energy from the sun.
In the figure above, which of the following statements correspond with direct sunlight over the Tropic of Capricorn?
Winter; far right most
In the figure above, which labeled location marks the beginning of summer in the Northern Hemisphere?
B; when toward the sun
On what day(s) do all locations on Earth experience 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of night?
on the vernal equinox
northern hemisphere nights are short days are long
southern hemisphere: nights are long days are short
The lowermost portion of the atmosphere where most weather occurs is called the
The two factors that are most important in determining the density of air are:
temp and water vapor
true of the movement of Earth's atmosphere except :
warm air is less dense than cool air so it tends to sink toward the Earth's surface.
Which of the following will cause the highest air pressure at the surface?
cool, dense air
Which of the following will cause the lowest air pressure at the surface?
warm less dense air
Earth's atmosphere is heated primarily by __________.
re-radiation of solar energy from Earth's surface back into the atmosphere as infrared radiation
Of the following physical properties of the atmosphere, which is/are true
-The air temperature is warmer near Earth's surface than in the upper part of the troposphere. -Low pressure at the surface is associated with rising air (movement away from the surface) -Air always moves from high-pressure regions toward low-pressure regions. -Warm air holds more water vapor than cool air.
Of the following statements about the transfer of heat on Earth, which is/are true?
Ocean currents move warm water from the tropics to higher latitudes.
Air currents move warmer air from the tropics to higher latitudes.
Water vapor in the air carries latent heat with it, which is released in other areas.
air always moves from ___ atmospheric pressure regions to ___ atmospheric pressure regions.
As shown in the video, what causes the item to deflate?
The higher pressure inside the item forces the air out into the lower pressure of the room.
The Coriolis effect is due to changes in the ________ of Earth with latitude.
As a result of the Coriolis effect in the northern hemisphere, winds always are deflected:
to the right of their original direction.
Which of the following statements about the Coriolis effect is correct?
The magnitude of the Coriolis effect depends on how long the object is in motion.
What type of force is the Coriolis effect?
In which direction must the merry-go-round be pushed to simulate the Coriolis effect on Earth?
The temperate regions are characterized by:
Idealized pressure belts and wind systems are significantly modified by Earth's tilted axis of rotation and:
differences in the heat capacities of the ocean and land.
The trade winds blow in which of the following directions in the Northern Hemisphere?
northeast to southwest
The prevailing westerly winds blow in which of the following directions in the Northern Hemisphere?
from southwest to northeast
The prevailing westerly winds blow in which of the following directions in the Southern Hemisphere?
northwest to southeast
The trade winds occur in which of the following regions?
5 to 30 degrees
Polar high pressure occurs in which of the following regions?
poles (90 degrees)
Earth's polar regions (above 60° latitude) are classified as deserts because _________
cold, dry sinking air in the polar high regions produces little precipitation
Of the following statements about the doldrums, which is/are true?
-This is also known as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). -There is usually little wind but a lot of rain associated with the doldrums. -The doldrums are an area of low atmospheric pressure. -The doldrums are the boundary between the northeast trade winds and the southeast trade winds.
Air warmed by the land that rises and is replaced by cooler air from the ocean may produce a:
Why are tropical cyclones not likely to occur in mid-latitude regions?
Westerly winds steer cyclones into cooler ocean water.