TExES Core Subjects (ELA/Reading) 211
Terms in this set (95)
the grammatical structure of sentences
gives human characteristics to an inanimate object
Students have not met their grade level expectation in Reading
let students choose which readings they'll study and write about. It will encourage students to react honestly to literature.
refers to an author's choice of words, expressions and style to convey his/her meaning
2 major characteristics of the 1st American literature
Maudlin and self pitying egocentricism
subject of a tall tale
a specific 8 line stanza whose rhyme scheme is abababcc
Petrarch or Italian sonnet
names after the poet Petrarch (1304-1374). It is divided into an octave rhyming abbaabba and a seset normally rhyming cdecde.
gives human reactions and thoughts to animals, things, and abstract ideas alike. This figure of speech is often present in allegory.
the quality in a work of literature which evokes feelings of pity or compassion
ex. Desdemona's death in Othello
an extended metaphor which compares two very similar things- one lofty, one lowly
(...) a punctuation mark indication omission, interrupted thought, or an incomplete statement.
3 forms of disclosure
exposition, description, and persuasion
a phrase or expression that has become dull due to overuse
ex. "clean as a whistle" or "as easy as falling of a log"
sets forth a systematic explanation of any subject. It can also introduce the characters of a literary work and their situations in the story.
details and examples supporting the main idea
should not be included in the opening of an informative essay
reading all rough drafts before the students write the final copies
is not an approach to keep students conscious of the need to write for audience appeal
NOT a characteristic of a good reader
when faced with unfamiliar words, they skip over them unless meaning is lost
Phonological awareness includes
rhyming and syllabication
blending sounds into words
removing initial sounds and substituting others
If a student's fluency rate is low
the student will have difficulty remembering what has been read
pictures and graphics in the text
is NOT utilized by a reader when trying when trying to comprehend the meaning behind the literal text
are types of books that explain concepts or phenomena like history or the idea of photosynthesis. Informational text are usually based on research. Texts that are presented in a very straightforward or choppy manner are newspaper articles
its purpose is to make an experience available through one of the 5 senses
is a process that can be clearly defined. Students must pre-write, organize, edit and revise.
organize a multi-paragraph essay
topic sentences, transition words, and appropriate vocabulary are used by writers.
Students speaking on a platform
use no contractions,
have longer sentences,
strictly organize longer segments
it is recommended that all teachers of reading and particularly those who are working with ELL students use meaningful, student centered, and culturally customized activities. These activities may include: language games, word walls, and poems. Some of these activities might, if possible, be initiated in the child's first language and the reiterated in English.
a strong topic sentence will
will tell what the passage is about.
refers to the meaning expressed when words are arranged in a specific way
John Bunyan, Coleridge, Shakespeare, Homer, and Chaucer all contributed to this genre of literature.
These 5 authors contributed to the adult literature genre as they were authoring titles before children's and preadolescent/ adolescent literature became recognized as separate genres that authors purposefully contributed towards.
occur when a rhyme is not exact because the final consonant sounds may be the same while the vowel sounds are different.
ex. green and gone; that and hit
This type of device occurs frequently in Welsh verse as well as in Irish and Icelandic verse. Poets who use words to evoke meaning in their sounds are using onomatopoeia
Transitional words or phrases to show relationship to ideas
this is what students should use to improve coherence of ideas within an argument
Being competent in _________, a reader is able to understand what the writer is trying to convey to the audience
pragmatics is the development and understanding of social relevance to conversations and topics. It develops as children age.
to make an inference a reader must:
use prior knowledge and apply it to the current situation
> it is a tool that students can use to help them visualize ideas in a text. They are also helpful scaffolding tool as they help students activate their prior knowledge on the topic at hand.
> can be used to visually represent text.
ex. Venn Diagrams, flowcharts, and webs
> help readers think critically by pulling out the main idea and supporting details
structures that represent concepts stored in the memory. When used together with prior knowledge and ideas from the printed text while reading, comprehension takes place. Schemata have nothing to do with make generalization and proving with facts
asking a child if what he or she has read makes sense to him or her prompts semantic sues.
children use their prior knowledge, sense of the story, and pictures to support their prediction and confirming the meaning of the text.
reading text with expression or prosody
indicates that a student is a fluent reader
to decode is to:
sound out a printed sequence of letters
to decode means to change communication signals into messages. Reading comprehension requires that the reader lean the code within which a message is written and be able to decode it to get the message
"What is the point"
the 1st question to be asked when reading a written piece, listening to a presentation, and writing a composition
writing an introduction
it should be written last
it should lead the audience into the disclosure
it can take up a large percentage of the total word count
Repetition of vocabulary items
is an important feature of vocabulary instruction according to the National Reading Panel
role play writer
uses writing-like behavior but has not phonetic association.
to determine an author's purpose a reader must:
use his or her own judgemnet
skills that can help students improve their listening
tap into prior knowledge
look for transitions between ideas
Academically, appropriate literature primarily helps students to
see how the skills they learned are applied to writing
when students are exposed to appropriate literature selections, and are taught to select appropriate texts for themselves, they are able to observe how the reading and writing skills they learn in the classroom mini-lessons are applied to published writing. Published works are an excellent place for students to see not only proper conventions of grammar, but "real-life" example of imagery and figurative language
Oral language language
effective oral language development can be encouraged by many different activities including storytelling, rhyming books, meaningful conversation, alphabet songs, dramatic playmate, listening games, and more.
promotes language acquisition and correlates with literacy development, achieving better reading comprehension, and overall success in school. It may or may not promote self-confidence, depending on the reader and his or her skills and personality
it is a prerequisite for spelling and phonics
activated can be done by children with their eyes closed
it starts before letter recognition is taught
phonics and phonemic awarness
phonics is the application of sounds to print
phonemic awareness is oral
5 basic types of phmnemic awarness
1. the ability to hear rhymes and alliteration
2. the ability to do the oddity task (recognize the member of a set that is different, or odd among the group)
3. the ability to orally blend words and split syllables
4. the ability to orally segment words
5. the ability to do phonics manipulation tasks
activities that parents can practice at home to improve phonological and phonemic awareness
1. play games with words that sound alike as you experience them in everyday home activities
2. demonstrate how sounds blend together in familiar words
3. play a game in which the goal is to find objects with names that begin with a certain initial sound
sometimes called graphophnemic awareness. This multi-syllabic technical reading foundation term describes the understanding that written words are composed of patterns of letters that represent the sounds of spoken words.
1. an understanding that words are made up of letters and that each letter has a specific sound.
2. the correspondence between sounds and letters to phonological reading. This consist of reading regular and irregular words and doing advanced analysis of words.
1. techniques give multiple cues to enhance memory and learning
2. quilt book, rhyme time, letter path, and shape games are multisensory strategies
3. techniques requires direct teaching and ongoing engagement
activities that facilitate learning the alphabetic principle include:
read aloud, alphabet art, concept books, and name sorts
the left to right motion
a convention of print that children learn during reading activities
children learn to hold a book, where to begin to read, the left to right motion, and how to continue from one line to another
alphabet books are classified as:
to draw inferences and make conclusions
the process in which one takes different things and makes them one while thing.
occurs when one examine different objects and draws a global conclusion. It is often thought of as the opposite of analysis
a strategy that encourages children to use the context more effectively by presenting them with sufficient context BEFORE they begin reading. No more than 2 or 3 words should be selected for direct teaching
the best place for students to find appropriate synonyms, antonyms, and other related word to enhance their writing
an _______ is a story in verse or prose with characters representing virtues and vices.
fluent reading strategies
IS NOT reading sentences read by word
the ability to automatically recognize words, graphemes, word types, and syllables.
likely to improve reading
vocabulary should be introduced before reading if there are words in the text that are necessary for reading comprehension
vocabulary instruction according to the National Reading Panel
repetition of vocabulary items
IS NOT a strategy of teaching reading comprehension
this is when the children's literature came into its own
students evaluating reference sources
1. examine the level of detail provided by the source
2. review the reference at the end of the book or article
3. see if the author presents both sides of an argument or viewpoint
describes the best way to teach spelling
withing the context of meaningful language experiences
IS NOT a technique of prewriting
oral language development can be enhanced by the following:
analyzing the speaking of others:
is an excellent technique for helping students to improve their own public speaking abilities. In most circumstances students cannot view themselves as they give speeches and presentations, so when they get the opportunity to critique, question and analyze others' speeches, the begin to learn what works and what doesn't work in effective public speaking.
DO NOT have students to critique each other's public speaking.
contextual redefinition is a strategy that encourages children to use the context more effectively by presenting them with sufficient vocabulary ______ the reading of a text.
A ____ is the longest form of fictional prose containing a variety of characterizations, settings, and regionalism.
A _____ can be divided into a sub-genre which include fixed types of literature such as the sonnet, elegy, ode, pastoral, and villanelle
When evaluating reference sources, students should:
examine the level of detail provided by the source
review the references at the end of the book or article
see if the author presents both sides of an argument or viewpoint
____ refers to an object or action that can be observes with the senses and that suggest other things
the best way to teach spelling
within the context of meaningful language experiences
characteristics of narrative writing
written in 1st person; characters, setting, and plot; some dialogue; events organized in chronological sequence with some flashnack
provides the most accessibility to the most learners
the advertising technique that is based on appealing to our desire to think for ourselves
useful for creating visual media
> limit your graph to just one idea or concept and keep the content simple
> balance substance and visual appeal
> mathe the information to the format that will fit it best
examples of ongoing informal assessment techniques used to observe student progress:
* analysis of student product
* observation of students
the level at which the child can read text orally on his or her own
the level at which the student should be taught because it provides enough difficulty to increase his or her reading skills without providing so much that is becomes too cumbersome to finish the selection
books that are too difficult for the child and should not be used
good choices for supporting a thesis
*answer to the questions "why"
spelling instruction should include:
*developing a sense of correct and incorrect spellilng
answering questions; monitoring comprehension, and interacting with a text
characteristics of a folktale;
a hero on a quest; good versus evil; adventures of animals
contributed to a separate literature genre for adolescents
the social changes of post WWII
the Civil Rights Movement
Issues surrounding tee pregnancy
important in understanding fiction
realizing the artistry in telling a story to convey a point
knowing fiction is imaginary