AP Biology Big Idea 4
Terms in this set (74)
the part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs
digestive tube that extends from the mouth to the anus
the binding of a regulatory molecule to a protein at one site that affects the function of the protein at a different site.
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
Total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units
the order of an element in Mendeleyev's table of the elements
(chemistry) the ratio of the atomic mass of an element to half the atomic mass of carbon-12
upper chamber of the heart that receives and holds blood that is about to enter the ventricle
Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1.
a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell
one of two small cylindrical cell organelles composes of 9 triplet microtubules
a type of fat made by the body from saturated fat; a minor part of fat in foods
Organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis
An organic molecule that is a necessary participant in some enzymatic reactions; helps catalysis by donating or accepting electrons or functional groups; e.g., a vitamin, ATP, NAD+.
nonprotein helpers needed by enzymes
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield two monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
an elementary particle with negative charge
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form fat.
specialized cell that filters and removes excess water from the body of a flatworm
A membrane lipid consisting of a glycerol molecule esteried to two fatty acid chains and a sugar molecule.
vesicles membranes fuse with golgi membranes
vesicle material can end up in the Golgi
each part of Golgi has different enzymes to modify/process proteins
processed proteins become part of new vesicles and passed from stack to stack and becomes further modified
term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
a chemical that serves as a messenger. Each hormone is secreted by a gland and travels to one or more target organs, where it brings about responses.
a chemical bond consisting of a hydrogen atom between two electronegative atoms (e.g., oxygen or nitrogen) with one side be a covalent bond and the other being an ionic bond
plants and animals that have migrated to areas where they did not originate; often displace native species by outcompeting them for resources
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
a species whose impact on its community or ecosystem are much larger and more influential than would be expected from mere abundance
either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine
membrane-bound sac containing digestive enzymes that can break down proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides
saclike organ in most terrestrial arthropods that extracts wastes from the blood adding them to feces that move through the gut
powerhouse of the cell, produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar(Cellular respiration)
a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate
excretory organ of an annelid that filters fluid in the coelom
a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses
a chemical that is released by a neuron for the purpose of carrying information across the gaps (synapses) between neurons
the particles of the nucleus that have no charge
(ecology) the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species)
nonpolar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus
in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function
a tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
a lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids
thin outer boundary of a cell that regulates the traffic of chemicals between the cell and its surroundings
polar covalent bond
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides
mechanism of homeostasis feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output
positively charged particles
One of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are purines.
One of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) are pyrimidines.
ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
their nuclei are unstable and break down at a constant rate of time
An organelle that functions in the synthesis of proteins
rough endoplasmic reticulum
System of internal membranes within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport of substances such as proteins within the cytoplasm
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
An endomembrane system where lipids are synthesized, calcium levels are regulated, and toxic substances are broken down.
lipid molecule with four fused carbon rings
the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment
3 fatty acids (chains of hydrocarbons) bonded to a glycerol, most fats are eaten and absorbed in this form, carbohydrate
The electrons in the outermost shell (main energy level) of an atom; these are the electrons involved in forming bonds.
van der waal interactions
very weak and transient; when atroms are interacting in a non-polar covalent bond, there can be fleating differences in charge, as e- move, at any given moment a group of e- could be gathered on one side and is then able to interact with other atoms through opposite charges; geicko
lower chamber of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart