An outline is a diagram that shows you how your communication will be organized. It helps you organize what you want to write or say, and ensures you don't omit vital information.
Why is it important to follow basic communication principles?
Whether you are writing or speaking, certain principles of composition are always important.
Identify and describe six vital communication principles that will help your speech and/or writing
1. Be clear 2. Use familiar words 3. Eliminate clutter 4. Stay active 5. Put statements in positive form 6. Use parallel structure
What is the main goal of written communication?
To share meaning, and in doing so, inform, persuade, or entertain.
It is a good way for you to gather ideas, and it helps prevent writer's block.
Describe "argument" in the context of an essay's body
Reasons given in proof or rebuttal.
Explain the purpose of a topic sentence
To introduce the main idea of a paragraph.
What is the importance of having a strong beginning to your essay or speech?
The first few sentences should really grab your reader with an unexpected or dramatic scenario or story.
Define "thesis statement"
The central message of an essay, and your essay's main idea.
Define transitional words
Transitional words tell the audience when you have finished relating one idea and are switching to a new thought.
What are some transitional words?
-In addition -However -Therefore -First -As a result -Moreover -Similarly -As you can see
Describe what an objection is and explain its importance
Reasons or arguments presented in opposition. It improves your communication abilities.
What is the function of the conclusion?
It gives you something memorable to end your essay with. You reiterate your thesis, but use different words.
Explain the purpose of a staff study
It provides a professional format for presenting concerns and solutions.
What are the sections required in a staff study?
Consider your audience, state the problem, analyze the entire problem, gather data, identify the facts, identify assumptions, test possible solutions, recommend action.
What are the pros of email as a communication medium?
-No cost -Unobtrusive -Easy to file -Easy to share
What are the cons of email as a communication medium?
-Lack of scrutiny -Easy to hit send -Impersonal -Inbox fills -Can't tell if someone will see the message
Describe the guidelines for maintaining professionalism when using email
Be brief, address superiors as Sir, use proper spelling/grammar, reply promptly, ask questions directly, be judicious about sending copies, don't get into arguments, don't spam, close with a signature, think before you send.
Describe ways to combat stage fright
Adequately prepare for your speech, it can decrease stage fright by up to 75%
What are the four most common methods of speech?
1.Manuscript(poorest, for details) 2.Memory(most difficult, time consuming) 3.Impromptu(most challenging,think on your feet) 4.Extemporaneous(best results)
Which method of speech is the poorest?
What are the parts of a speech?
-The specific purpose -The central idea -Introduction -Body& Conclusion
Describe the term "signpost"
They are brief verbal cues indicating your progress through an outline.
What are some examples of sign posts?
"I've already told you about TWO OF CAP's MISSIONS" "MY THIRD POINT" "CADETS GO ON TO LEAD INCREDIBLE LIVES" "FIRST, LET'S TALK ABOUT A FOR AIRWAY"
What are the principles in concluding a speech?
Summarize the points you made, and end you speech with, "are there any questions?"
What is a zinger?
A good way to end a casual speech. It is a memorable or humorous last line. Such as "and that's why I'll never kiss an alligator ever again."
Describe the purpose of a resume
To briefly document your work history and give you the opportunity to show what makes you qualified for the job.
Identify major components of a resume
Personal info, objective, education, experience, awards honors & extra activities, references.
Explain the purpose of a job interview
The employer wants to meet you face to face.
Describe ways applicants can prepare for interviews
Make a good first impression, and prepare for the classic questions. Ask good questions yourself.
What are the pros of social media's impact upon society?
-Mobile -Wide outreach -Good for promotions -Extroverts can feel at home
What are the cons of social media's impact upon society?
-Personal info is open to the public -Anonymity means that everyone trolls and flames
One definition of command is
The authority to direct subordinates to perform duties toward the attainment of organizational objectives.
Basic guidelines for a new commander are
-Stay away until you officially assume command -Make a clean break with your old job -Prepare for new responsibilities
Six priorities for the first 90 days of command are
1. Understand your new position 2. Become technically proficient 3. Get to know your people 4. Ascertain the health of the unit 5. Learn how your team fits in the big picture 6. Determine the direction you want the unit to take
Three challenges a new commander may face when assuming command are
1. Be yourself 2. You're not one of the guys anymore 3. Beware the temptations of ego
Being in charge means you are responsible for
Helping subordinates excel; you serve their needs.
Steps included in developing a command intent are
1. Review your commander's intent 2. Provide the "why," the context for the mission 3. Address the scope of authority that troops have
The three components of a command intent are
1. Developing command intent 2. Communicating a command intent 3. Cooperate & imagine an intent
Three approaches for communicating command intent are
1. A carefully prepared speech or written document 2. Informal discussion/remarks 3. The passage of time..........
The components of a mission statements are
-An overarching reason for being -Human connection -Logical sequencing -Measurable goals
The three steps to developing a mission statement are
1. Involve the troops 2. Consider the stakeholders' perspectives 3. Reflect upon questions that get to your inner core
Human capital conveys a belief that
Good people are like gold, and that having good people on your team is more important than having money in the bank.
The questions that a good job description must answer are
1. Why does this job exist? 2. What does the job accomplish 3. How does this job related to other jobs in the organization
The basic principles to follow when writing a job description are
-Joint authorship -Job function -Performance standards
Leaders should revisit job descriptions periodically because
Circumstances change as the team grows and pursues new goals.
The servant leaders role in setting performance standards for a job is
To ensure that high-speed team members do not set unrealistically high goals for themselves, and that timid folks learn that they will be expected to produce a bit more than they would if they set their own pace.
Some challenges that a job interviewer must overcome are
-Inauthenticity -Encourage two way dialogue -Stick to questions that directly relate to the job
Practical tips for conducting an interview are
-Read the resume before the interview, highlight items you want to know more about -Warmly greet candidate, set them at ease -Compliment candidate by recognizing that simply being on the interview is good -Listen actively -Go beyond canned answers, ask why -Ask open ended questions -Ask situational questions -Take notes during conversation -Give candidate final opportunity to make remark -Shake hands and thank them for their time -Immediately evaluate based off criteria
For the sake of holding every applicant to the same standards_________________
Interviewers should rate candidates against the same scorecard
Four hazards a hiring manager must overcome with new hires are
find the perfect candidate. Rarely, if ever, does that person exist. Interviewers must understand the necessity of trade-offs.
Principles of dismissing with dignity are
-It should be a last resort -Respect the individual
Laissez-faire as described by the FRLM means
The absence of leadership.
Managment by exception as described by the FRLM means
You do something, I react. Or vice versa. It is a form of transactional leadership.
The most impoverished view of leadership according to the FRLM is
Contingent reward as described by the FRLM means
The leader uses incentives to encourage people to do the right things, but the relationship might be seen as cold. It is a form of transactional leadership
Who synthesized what they knew about leadership to create the FRLM
Bernard Bass and Bruce Avolio
What is the FRLM?
It is a full spectrum of leadership. It is used in visualizing relationships between multiple leadership approaches. It is NOT a situational approach, rather, different approaches are considered more effective.
Delegation is a leadership skill which involves the development of an understanding between a leader and a follower about how they'll share authority. It involves turning over authority and responsibility for a specific task to a subordinate.
The term "vital shift" means
As people move up the management ladder, they should shift from "doers" to "managers."
Some benefits of delegation are
-It allows you more time to plan -More opportunities to evaluate subordinates -More chances to grow for the person delegated -Person delegated will earn respect, as it shows trust between the supervisor and junior supervisor -It helps the organization run smoother long term
Three important terms relating to effective delegation are
1. Authority(must be delegated for success) 2. Responsibility 3. Accountability(Shared/transferred accountability)
Four steps for effective delegation are
1. Define the task 2. Assign the task 3. Grant authority 4. Follow up
Common mistakes in delegation
-Unclear delegation -Supervise too closely -Helps too much -Rushed delegation -Improper selection of subordinates
Define organizational culture
Organizational culture is the commonly held values within a group of people.
The three phases in leading organizational culture changes are
1. Unfreezing(creating motivation) 2. Learning new concepts(help people learn) 3. Internalization(own the new culture personally)
Two challenges that occur during the unfreezing phase of culture change are
1. The organization must see reality 2. The organization must unlearn bad habits
8 principles of the learning phase of culture changes are
1. Clear articulation of vision 2. Psychological safety 3. The right metrics and rewards 4. Symbols & physical environment 5. Training & safety nets 6. Stories to communicate culture 7. Teachable moments 8. Leadership by example
Four challenges to overcome during the internalization phase of organizational culture change are
1. Making a lasting commitment 2. Out with the old behavior 3. Need for success 4. Adversaries of change
The nuclear option for organizational change is
An order: termination or involuntary reassignment of those who attempt to sabotage the effort or steadfastly refuse to change.
Four pillars of safety leadership are
1. Safety must be integrated 2. Safety is a right 3. Everyone is responsible for safety 4. Safety is a value
Practical ways of developing a safety culture are
-Incentives -Trait theory
The definition of performance appraisals
A performance appraisal is the process of measuring how well and individual has fulfilled assigned duties and responsibilities.
What are some of the drawbacks of performance appraisals
-Encourages negative criticism and "hammering" -Single person's opinion of individual's performance -Can reflect the rater's intentions as much as the rated's performance at times
Some characteristics of 360 degree feedback include
-It can be time consuming -It must find a way for feedback to be anonymous -It depends on a highly trained coach -It can have no consequences
Philosophies used to measure organizational performance include
-Continuous improvement -A system of moving targets -Processes vs. Outputs -Benchmarking
What are the differences between processes and outputs?
1. We measure success by the output 2. Improperly focus on processes and you fail to recognize outcomes, and vice versa
Management by objective is
A respected process for setting goals that cascade down into objectives, which, in turn, become the metrics for the team's overall success.
Some factors in the process of management by objective are
-Objectives -Action plans
Describe the order for the cascade of goals, objectives & action plans
1. Strategic goals: The team's highest aspirations. 2. Objectives: Complete these items and the team will naturally achieve the strategic goals. 3. Action plans: Finish this nitty-gritty work and the team can check off one of the objectives higher up
Some criticisms of MBO are
-It's not "fad" or new -You can spend too much time doing writing reports instead of doing the job -Individuals responsible for doing jobs may feel pressure to finish jobs on time and fudge reports -If an objective is incomplete, MBO doesn't tell leaders what they should do next
Why you should watch out if you're in command just to get promoted
Because your troops will sense that in 8 seconds an make life hell for you
One simple definition of management is:
The art of getting credit for all the home runs somebody else hits.
An organization is:
A body of individuals working under a defined system of rules, assignments, procedures, and relationships designed to achieve identifiable goals and objectives.
Ways to politely contribute during web, phone, and video conferences are:
-Place yourself in a quit area -Be online and ready to accept the call precisely on time, if not early -If a new user of technology, try to test your connection and software in advance
Helpful tips for meeting etiquette are:
-The chairperson articulates a clear goal for the meeting -The chair keeps meetings as brief as possible, and distributes factual information in advance -Participants come prepared, having completed "homework" in advance -All participants attend the meetings they have committed to -All participants arrive on time and stay until the end -All participants focus on the business at hand -All participants listen respectfully during discussions, and wait their turn to speak
"To evoke the best possible performance from each member of their team" is the job of:
The meeting facilitator.
The one legitimate source of pleasure in chairmanship should be:
The achievements of the meeting.
What is the single greatest barrier to the success of a meeting?
The chairman's self-indulgence.
What is the first duty of the chairman?
To be aware of the temptation to dominate.
Four hallmarks of facilitative leadership are:
1.A neutral attitude 2.Adhere to process 3.Desire for consensus 4.Counterweight to the status arena
Eight tips a facilitative leader can use to actively manage group discussion are:
1.Ask open-ended questions 2.Ask for specificity in response 3.Redirect questions to the group 4.Invite quiet members to join the discussion 5.Record ideas and make them visible to all 6.Signal to dominating members their need to hold back 7.Help rambling members wrap up 8.Redirect energy of combative members
Define the term management:
Working with or through other people to accomplish the objectives of both the organization and its members.
A staff officer is a manager because:
a manager is someone who has responsibility for making a contribution. Also, you are a manager even if you are not responsible for the work of other people.
The principle of ethical management is important because:
Management involves people. Directly or indirectly, what is managed will have an effect upon people.
Four functions of management are:
1.Planning 2.Organizing 3.Leading 4.Controlling
The process of determining organizational goals and the means for achieving them.
Bringing together resources in the most effective way.
In management, leading is creating an atmosphere that will assist and motivate people to achieve an organization's objectives.
The process of monitoring progress toward the organization's goals and making changes as necessary.
What is a project?
A set of coordinated activities, with a specific start and finish, pursuing a specific goal, with constraints on time, cost, and resources.
Why are power point slides not always the ideal communication medium?
Powerpoints naturally distort information, and briefings should be an exchange of information, not a demonstration of visuals.
Some ways to use body language effectively in presentations are:
-Start with eye contact -Smile -Express your emotions with your facial muscles -Avoid distracting mannerisms -Tell a story -Stay true to your personality -Make gestures convincing -Vary your speaking position by moving from one spot to another
Someone who has special skills
What professionals must have
a habit of putting the community's interest above their own is?
an established requirement, a principle by which someone can be judged
Transition from Airman to NCO
New cadet NCOs have to transition from one who has been cared for to one who cares for others.
The seven major responsibilities of an NCO
1.Epitomize the Core Values 2.Guide, Instruct, and Mentor 3.Support the Leader 4.Reward People 5.Correct People 6.Career Counsel 7.Keep Learning
Servant leadership is when the leader sees himself or herself primarily as a servant of the team
Becoming self centered or a bully
Servant Leadership is the new leader's vaccine against
An NCO not using their rank to take a position in a line, and conducting an inspection with the goal of helping each individual meet the standards
Examples of servant leadership are
What Servant-Leadership is not
about a personal quest for power, prestige, or material rewards
What pulling rank is often seen as
a lazy, immature, and counterproductive way to lead
the process through which leaders try to solve performance problems and develop their people.
Elements of successful coaching
Dialogue, empowerment, action, and improvement
Techniques for successful coaching
Observation, purpose, dialogue, and follow-up
Cornerstones of supervision
Trust and fairness
a negative consequence
a learning process that provides an opportunity for positive growth
Principles of constructive criticism
Know that ability differs from willingness Praise in public, correct in private Choose the right time Control emotions Focus on performance
Motivation is the reason for an action. Motivation is that which gives purpose and direction to a behavior. In short, motivation is your 'why
motivators that work within you
motivators that work outside of you
they can cause people to focus on the reward not the mission.
Leaders can motivate people by linking
the team's mission with each individual's long term goals
Compared with leaders of paid employees, volunteer leaders will find fewer
The three levels at which leadership is practiced at
1.Strategic 2.Operational 3.Tactical
the three levels of leadership skill
1.Personal 2.Team 3.Institutional
Principles that guide NCOs in remaining good followers
Initiative Command intent Respectful dissent Completed staff work Updates and advice
Together Everyone Achieves More
The seven needs of a team
1.Common goals 2.Leadership 3.Involvement of all members 4.Good morale 5.Open communication 6.Mutual respectful 7.Fair way to resolve conflicts
Pitfalls of teams:
They can be unwieldy They can pressure individuals to conform Free riders Groupthink Lack of accountability
Tuckman's four stages of team dynamics
1.Forming 2.Storming 3.Norming 4.Performing
The LEAD model
Leadership researchers create models, easy to understand guidelines that boil complex theories down to something workable.
The four letters of the L.E.A.D. Model stand for:
Lead with a clear purpose Empower to participate Aim for consensus Direct the team
How did the officer's professional expectations rise with the birth of the modern military?
Prior to the 1800's, Officers behaved like aristocrats. In brief, the military profession was simply nonexistent. Now, officership functions off the concept of a meritocracy. The smartest, most creative, most expert, most accomplished individuals rise to the top and earn the most prestigious and rewarding positions.
Defend the requirement for officers to swear an oath of office
The oath's key principle is the officer's promise to support the constitution against all enemies.
The cadet officer's task is to
Try to emulate the hallmarks of officership. Though not legally bound, cadet officers can still think of themselves as pursuing a vocation of leadership and service.
Circa 2009, what are the methods of commission, and what percentage of officers come from each?
1.Leadership from a distance 2.Leadership through a link 3.Leadership through creation 4.Upward influence
What does the term "link" mean in the context of indirect leadership?
E.g. Flight commanders and element leaders are the "links" who relay messages to the lower levels.
Why can upward influence be a positive form of indirect leadership?
Upward influence will be seen only in organizations where bosses truly show they are willing to listen to subordinates, and when those subordinates are truly made to feel that their input is valued.
Why are organizations and leaders expected to honor a public trust?
Because power requires consent. The entire American civilization is built upon the belief that just powers come from the consent of the governed. Leaders who find themselves in powerful positions have an obligation to the public at large.
Some sample issues relating to corporate social responsibility are
-Corruption -Stewardship -Philanthropy -Sustainability -Human rights -Transparency
What is a professional organization
A group that seeks to further a certain profession, help members succeed in that profession, and uphold the public trust.
Why do professionals often join professional associations?
In their efforts to honor public trust, professionals join professional associations.
Why do most professional associations adopt a code of ethics?
Because it is a way for them to advance their profession and earn the public's trust for their community of professionals.
Define the term "dissent"
Dissent is the expression of opinions contrary to the official view, and a means for a leader to call attention to obligations that are higher than the duty to follow orders.
Why is dissent a necessary feature of leadership?
Because organizations need to learn quickly, and leaders who welcome dissenting views allow useful, if unpopular, ideas to be heard.
Why is dissent important to the team's success?
Because of the paradox of false consensus (Abilene paradox), it's clear that teams sometimes pretend to be cohesive when in reality team members harbor alternative views. People who have serious concerns about a plan of action avoid stating those dissenting views, preferring to go along with the watered-down compromises.
Defend the claim that dissent should be valued within the military
Although the military relies upon its chain of command and the duty to follow orders, the Air Force was itself born through the dissent of a single officer. Billy Mitchell.
Principles for dissenting with respect
-Use the chain of command -Stay professional -Recommend solutions -Pick your battles -Don't criticize an idea unless you can summarize it in a way that someone opposing you would admit your summary was fair.
Principles for encouraging and receiving dissenting views from subordinates
-Be mindful if you outrank someone -How you handle dissent now effects the future -Be mindful of your defensive behaviors -Assume good faith -Thank people for speaking up -Give credit to those who come up with ideas
Why should leaders be skilled at moral reasoning?
Because officers play a special role in resolving problems that have ethical dimensions, they need to develop their capabilities in moral reasoning.
Define moral relativism
Moral relativism denies that there are certain kinds of universal truths. In ethics, this means there are no universally valid moral principles.
Define moral objectivism
Objectivism is the belief that despite cultures disagreeing about ethics across human history, some moral principles have universal validity. There is truth independent of human opinion that makes something morally right or wrong.
Define virtue ethics
All things are to be understood in terms of the ends toward which they aim. An acorn becomes a tree. A girl a woman. A cadet a leader.
Define duty ethics
A system of ethics that revolves around the concept of duty. Positive duties and negative duties Act only on the maxim as if what you did was universal law.
"Ethics is a matter of producing the greatest amount of happiness." You measure goodness by its utility. An act is morally right if it produces utility, if it produces pleasure.
Summarize the "just war theory" according to Aquinas
War is moral only: -if it is waged as a last resort -it is waged by a legitimate authority. -it pursues a just cause -it is fought with right intentions -it can be fought with a reasonable chance of success -What separates heroism from madness is the fact that the hero believes victory is possible, the madman knows it is not. -its goal is to re-establish peace -the pain inflicted is proportional to the injuries suffered -every effort is made to spare the lives of innocent non-combatants
What is the mark of an ethical leader?
A willingness to take moral challenges seriously, to think deeply about a personal code of ethics, and to apply that code consistently.
Define character education
Character education is any program designed to shape directly and systematically the behavior of young people. Further, character education must promote non-relativistic values that lead to good habits and responsible citizenship.
A belief in systematically employing rewards and punishments to control behavior.
Some examples of behaviorism include
Students who follow rules and aren't referred to the principle might earn the privilege of watching movies on Friday. Merit and demerit systems used at some CAP encampments are another example, at least when they try to affect individual character.
Some weaknesses of behaviorism are
-It's easy to give out demerits -Real life is not a reward system -Punishment does not develop individual character
Summarize the concept of developmentalism as it relates to character education
In contrast to the behaviorists, the developmentalists are concerned with how individuals systematically mature in their approach to moral and character issues over the life span. It's and appreciation for the growing capacity of independent thought.
What are the six stages in Kohlberg's theory of moral development
1.Obedience and punishment 2.Individualism 3.Inter-personal relations 4.The social order 5.Social contract 6.Universal principle
Explain how leaders might apply Kohlberg's teaching as they mold the character of subordinates
No lectures, no sermons, no manipulations, no contrived merits or demerits. Instead, leaders try to assist their followers or students in reaching the next stage of their moral development. By helping them engage in "mental gymnastics."
Describe some criticisms of Kohlberg's theory and developmentalism in general
Kohlberg's scare has to do with moral thinking, not moral action. People who can talk at a high moral level may not act accordingly.
One noted author and retired AF general said about developmentalism
Ethical decisions become ever more complex as individuals grow in power, prestige, and rank. Good moral values will sometimes be in conflict. You must apply ethics with wisdom and maturity. This may be the greatest challenge and the greatest opportunity for the enlightened leader.
Some practical ways to apply Kohlberg's theory of moral development are
-Challenge your followers' assumptions -Ask your follower to explain situations from another person's perspective -Make your follower predict likely outcomes -Have your follower identify the rights, virtues, and goods at stake -Have you follower identify vices, temptations, treachery that might come into play -Modify a situation by asking your follower "what if" -Ask your follower to identify the weakest link in their own argument -Examine precedents; has a similar issue come up before and how was it handled -Go beyond rules or the laws. Will those rules and laws, even if enforced perfectly, reflect our ideals of fairness
Define the term conflict in the context of interpersonal conflict
Conflict is a disagreement through which individuals perceive a threat to their needs, interests, or concerns.
Why must leaders possess good conflict resolution skills?
Leaders are expected not only to be proficient in managing the conflicts that arise in their lives, but in helping others manage conflict as well. If you wish to lead, you will need to acquire special expertise in resolving conflict.
Negotiation is a deliberate process for two or more people or groups to solve a difference or problem.
What is the leader/negotiator's role in dealing with conflict
The job of the negotiator is to build credibility with the "other side," find some common ground or shared interests, learn the opposing position, and share information that will persuade the "other side" to agree to an outcome.
Define the term BATNA
Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement. Simply stated, BATNA is what you would do if negotiation would fail.
What is the importance of BATNA?
Your BATNA can often be used to motivate the opposite party to stay in a negotiation. You can often convince the opposition to engage further in the negotiation when you reveal that you'd hate to go back to the boss and admit failure-and ask the opposition how his boss would react upon hearing the same news
Why are negotiation skills important to leaders and cadet officers?
Negotiation is an aspect of leadership. Cadet officers will find the need to negotiate as they cooperate with senior members in leading their units, try to resolve disputes among cadets, obtain favorable pay and time-off conditions with summer employers, work with college officials on financial aid packages, and more.
In business life, you don't _____
get what you deserve. You get what you negotiate.
Identify six practical steps for speaking up against everyday bigotry
1.Be ready 2.Identify the behavior 3.Appeal to principles 4.Set limits 5.Find an ally/be an ally 6.Be vigilant
Why is it important to speak up against bigotry?
If you don't speak up, you're surrendering part of yourself. You're letting bigotry win.