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Information Technology 360, Chapter 12
Terms in this set (49)
Provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting.
Building large software systems by combining preexisting software components.
Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
Automation of step-by-step methodologies for software and systems development to reduce the amount of repetitive work the developer needs to perform.
In e-commerce, changing a delivered product or service based on a user's preferences or prior behavior.
Data flow diagram (DFD)
Primary tool for structured analysis that graphically illustrates a system's component process and the flow of data between them.
Direct cutover strategy
A risky conversion approach by which the new system completely replaces the old one on an appointed day.
Descriptions of how an information system works from either a technical or end-user standpoint.
The development of information systems by end users with little or no formal assistance from technical specialists.
The interaction of people and machines in the work environment, including the design of jobs, health issues, and the end-user interface of information systems.
As part of the systems analysis process, the way to determine whether the solution is achievable, given the organization's resources and constraints.
Formal planning and control tools
Tools to improve project management by listing the specific activities that make up a project, their duration, and the sequence and timing of tasks.
Chart that visually represents the timing, duration, and human resource requirements of project tasks, with each task represented as a horizontal bar whose length is proportional to the time required to complete it.
All the organizational activities surrounding the adoption, management, and regular reuse of an innovation, such as a new information system.
A detailed statement of the information needs that a new system must satisfy; identifies who needs what information and when, where, and how the information is needed.
Information systems plan
A road map indication the direction of systems development: the rationale, the current situation, the management strategy, the implementation plan, and the budget.
Benefits that are not easily quantified; they include more efficient customer service or enhanced decision making.
Joint application design (JAD)
Process to accelerate the generation of information requirements by having end users and information systems specialists work together in intensive interactive design sessions.
Changes in hardware, software, documentation, or procedures to a production system to correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiency.
Mobile web app
Application residing on a server and accessed through the mobile web browser built into a smartphone or tablet computer.
Version of a regular website that is scaled down in content and navigation for easy access and search on a small mobile screen.
Stand-alone application specifically designed to run on a mobile platform.
Approach to systems development that uses the object as the basic unit of systems analysis and design. The system is modeled as a collection of objects and the relationship between them.
Organizational impact analysis
Study of the way a proposed system will affect organizational structure, attitudes, decision making, and operations.
A safe and conservative conversion approach in which both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assured that the new one functions correctly.
A chart that graphically depicts project tasks and their interrelationships, showing the specific activities that must be completed before others can start.
Introduces the new system in stages by functions or by organizational units.
A strategy to introduce the new system to a limited area of the organization until it proves to be fully functional; only then can the conversion to the new system across the entire organization take place.
An analysis of the portfolio of potential applications within a firm to determine the risks and benefits and to select among alternatives for information systems.
Specifications that describe the logic of the processes occurring within the lowest levels of a data flow diagram.
The stage after the new system is installed and the conversion is complete; during this time, the system is reviewed by users and technical specialists to determine how well it has met its original goals.
A planned series of related activities for achieving a specific business objective.
Application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to achieve specific targets within specified budget and tine constraints.
The process of building an experimental system quickly and inexpensively for demonstration and evaluation so that users can better determine information requirements.
Rapid application development (RAD)
Process for developing systems in a very short time period by using prototyping, user-friendly tools, and close teamwork among users and systems specialists.
Request for proposal (RFP)
A detailed list of questions submitted to vendors or software or other services to determine how well the vendor's product can meet the organization's specific requirements.
Responsive web design
Ability of a website to change screen resolution and image size automatically as a user switches to devices of different sizes, such as a laptop, tablet computer, or smartphone. Eliminates the need for separate design and development work for each new device.
Defines what work is or is not included in a project.
A quick method for deciding among alternative systems based on a system of ratings for selected objectives.
System documentation showing each level of design, the relationship among the levels, and the overall place in the design structure; can document one program, one system, or part of one program.
Refers to the fact that techniques are carefully drawn up, step by step, with each step building on a previous one.
Tests the functioning of the information system as a whole to determine whether discrete modules will function together as planned.
The analysis of a problem that the organization will try to solve with an information system.
Details how a system will meet the information requirements as determined by the systems analysis.
Systems development life cycle (SDLC)
A traditional methodology for developing an information system that partitions the systems development process into formal stages that must be completed sequentially with a very formal division of labor between end users and information systems specialists.
Benefits that an be quantified and assigned a monetary value; they include lower operational costs and increased cash flows.
Plan prepared by the development team in conjunction with the users; it includes all the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system.
The exhaustive and thorough process that determines whether the system produces the desired results under known conditions.
The process of testing each program separately in the system; sometimes called program testing.
User-designer communications gap
The difference in backgrounds, interests, and priorities that impede communication and problem solving among end users and information systems specialists.
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