45 terms

2018 Bridge to Biology Critical Vocabulary - Chemistry Strand

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atom
Smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element
Bohr model
A model resembling planets revolving around the sun in orbits used to model the structure of atoms
subatomic particles
The small units that make up atoms (protons, neutrons and electrons)
proton
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom. Mass = 1 amu
neutron
A subatomic particle that has a neutral charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom. Mass = 1 amu
electron
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge and that is found in energy levels outside the nucleus. Mass = 1/1836 amu
atomic mass unit (amu)
The unit of measure used to express the masses of particles in atoms
nucleus
The positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons; where the mass of an atom is located
energy level
A region of an atom's electron cloud in which electrons of the same energy are found
electron cloud
The negatively charged region surrounding the nucleus where electrons are located
element
A substance made of only one kind of atom that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance
isotope
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
ion
An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a positive or negative charge.
molecule
A particle made of two or more atoms bonded together
compound
A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
Periodic Table of the Elements
A table of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number, usually in rows, so that elements with similar atomic structure (and hence similar chemical properties) appear in vertical columns
group
A vertical column of elements on the periodic table that share the same number of valence and electrons and thus similar chemical properties
period
A horizontal row of elements on the periodic table that share the same number of energy levels
valence electrons
Electrons found on the outermost energy level of an atom that determine reactivity and chemical properties
metal
A class of elements characterized by physical properties that include shininess, malleability, ductility, and conductivity found on the left side of the periodic table
nonmetal
Element that is usually a gas or brittle solid at room temperature and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity found on the right side of the periodic table
metalloid
Nonmetals found along the "stair step line" on the periodic table; share properties of both metals and nonmetals; also known as semiconductors because they are weak conductors of heat and electricity
alkali metals
Highly reactive metals with one valence electron found in Group 1 on the periodic table
alkaline earth metals
Reactive metals with two valence electrons found in Group 2 on the periodic table
transition metals
Metals with variable numbers of valence electrons found in Groups 3-12 on the periodic table
halogens
Highly reactive nonmetals with 7 valence electrons found in Group 17 on the periodic table
nobel gases
Non-reactive gases that have atoms with completely filled outer energy levels found in Group 18 on the periodic table
rare earth metals
A rare group of transition metals located below the main portion of periodic table
chemical property
A characteristic of a substance that describes its ability to change into a different substance and can't be observed without chaning the substance into a new substance. Examples: reactivity or flammability
physical property
Any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the substances in the material. Examples: density, mass, volume, shape, color, harness
chemical change
A change that occurs when a substances changes into entirely new substances with different properties.
physical change
A change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties.
precipitate
An insoluble solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction.
dissolving
A physical change in which substances mix evenly with one another such as mixing salt and water
reactivity
A chemical property that describes how easily a substance combines chemically with other substances
flammability
A chemical property that describes how easily a substance will burn
phase change (change in state)
A physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another (melting, freezing, boiling, evaporation, etc)
subscript
The "little" numbers in a chemical formula that identify the number of atoms of an element
coefficient
The "big" numbers written in front of a chemical formula that identifies the number of molecules
product
The substance(s) produced in a chemical reaction
reactant
The substance(s) that undergo a change in a chemical reaction
chemical equation
A written form of a chemical reaction
law of conservation of mass
States that during a chemical change, matter is neither created nor destroyed but rather atoms are rearranged into different substances
chemical formula
A combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a the makeup of a molecule
Dmitri Mendeleev
Russian chemist who developed a periodic table of the chemical elements and predicted the discovery of several new elements (1834-1907)