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The followers of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are all __________, which means that the followers believe that only one god created and rules the universe.


The Jewish law prohibiting the worship of idols made the production of ___________most suspect.

sculpture in the round

The first synagogue at Dura Europus (Fig. 7-3) was located in a(n) __________


The two parts of the Christian Bible are the __________ and the __________.

Old Testament; New Testament

Like the Romans, early Christians first used central-plan buildings as _________.


Discoveries at Dura-Europos in the 1930's contradicted what long-held scholarly belief?

Jews of this period did not create any sort of figural art.

What area of the catacombs was NOT commonly decorated with painted imagery?


Which object is an example of iconic imagery in Christian art?

The Good Shepherd, Oratory of Galla Placidia (Fig. 7-16)

Where would the congregation have focused their attention during religious services at Hagia Sophia?

the dome

The Archangel Michael diptych (Fig. 7-26) is a portion of a __________-panel object.


What allows the dome of Hagia Sophia to appear to float mysteriously?

All of the above

The Eucharist is an elaborate ceremony in Christian worship involving the ritual consumption of bread and wine, identified as the _______________of Christ.

body and blood

The extensive use of marble, colored glass, and gold mosaics to decorate the interior of the Church of San Vitale (Fig. 7-21) had what effect on the structure?

It made the structure appear to dissolve into shimmering light and color.

Where are many of the best examples of Christian churches of the Middle Byzantine era located?


Which object includes a "Dëesis" as a plea to Christ for the owner's forgiveness and salvation?

Harbaville Triptych (Fig. 7-38)

The poet and philosopher Theodore Metochites is responsible for the elaborate program of decorative ________ that cover(s) every inch of the funerary chapel at the church of the Monastery of Christ in Chora (p. 257).


Architects of the Cathedral of St. Mark in Venice relied on a Greek-cross plan, marking each square unit with a separate __________.


Near the end of the first century, the _____________replaced the scroll as the primary form of recording texts.


Early Christians often employed stories from _______________ as prefigurations of important events in the Christian Bible.

the hebrew bible

The youthful, beardless Jesus, depicted in the Catacomb of Commodilla, holds a book to emphasize his role as______.

A teacher

Islam's aniconic tradition can be traced to ______________.

Muhammad's destruction of pagan idols in the Kaaba

The holy book of Islam is called the __________.


The Muslim place of worship is called the __________.


A key feature distinguishing the Dome of the Rock from Early Christian and Byzantine buildings is ______________.

the central-plan structure

The wall of the prayer hall that is closest to Mecca is called the __________ wall.


Which of the following is commonly used as a decorative element in Islamic architecture?


____________is/are commonly used to decorate luxury objects made by Muslim artists.


Figurative imagery is most common in what type of Islamic art?

architectural ornament

Islamic artists who used what media were most highly esteemed?


The invention of __________led to the development of increasingly elaborate scripts for use in calligraphy.

the codex

Islamic metalworking skills are demonstrated in the ____________decorating Baptistery of St. Louis (Fig. 8-16).

gold and silver inlay

A(n) __________was a college for religious and legal studies.


Which ornamental form typically employs marble or other colorful stone?


What language is common to all Muslims?


What did the Ottomans do to the church of Hagia Sophia when they conquered Constantinople?

converted it to an Islamic mosque

What type of decoration is used for the Kaaba (Fig. 8-2) in Mecca?

a black textile embroidered with Qur'anic verses in gold

Lusterware refers to a technique used to make ceramic surfaces resemble_________.

precious metals

Early Qur'an manuscripts ______________ because they were shared by multiple readers simultaneously.

had only three to five lines per page

European cultures became familiar with Islamic art through _________.

Islamic presence in Europe

Sinan's crowning achievement as an architect was the __________.

Mosque of Sultan Selim

The Book of Kells (Fig. 14-1) was produced on __________, an animal skin prepared for writing.


__________ are people from outside the empire who could only "barble" Greek or Latin.


Much of our knowledge of cultures from the Early Middle Ages in Europe comes from discovery of their _________________.


Christians in the Muslim territories were called __________.


Charlemagne's private chapel was in the city of __________.


The development of minuscule, _________________, was a significant contribution of the Carolingian period.

a new clear, lowercase script that increased the legibility of manuscripts

Seafaring bands of Norse seamen were called __________ or "people from the coves."


The timber churches that survive in rural Norway are called __________ churches, from the four huge staffs that form their structural core.


Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the so-called animal style which dominated the arts by the fifth century?

a preference for asymmetrical compositions

The burial site discovered at Sutton Hoo revealed the grave's occupant had been buried in a ________________.


Mozarabic style combines Christian forms with the artistic style of what culture?


How does the Page with St. Matthew the Evangelist from the Ebbo Gospels (Fig. 14-18) demonstrate Carolingian innovation in manuscript illumination

the modeling of the figure and drapery

What structure is at the center of the Saint Gall Plan (Fig. 14-16) which reflects the basic design used in the layout of medieval monasteries

a cloister

Why did many Ottonian cathedrals burn down in the eleventh century?

Their timber roofs made them susceptible to fire.

The Doors of Bishop Bernward in Hildesheim (Fig. 14-24) are notable as the most complex __________ since antiquity.

bronze-casting project

In addition to the energetic painting characterizing the Hitda Gospels (Fig. 14-25), the Gospels of Otto III (Fig. 14-26) show another Ottonian style, which was influenced by __________art in its sharply outlined drawings and lavish fields of gold.


Vikings erected large memorial stones: __________ contained inscriptions and __________ were covered with figural decoration.

rune stones; picture stones

Which material was NOT used by Ottonian artists?


The page illustrating Matthew Writing His Gospel from the Lindisfarne Gospel Book (page 431, Fig. B) demonstrates _________.

the artist intentionally suppressed classical style to emphasize local artistic tradition

Which architectural feature of Charlemagne's Palace Chapel at Aachen (Fig. 14-13) did NOT derive from Roman or Early Christian sources?

the ground-level ambulatory

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