1. Excrete excess water and waste products 2. Maintain balance of electrolytes and acid/base 3. Regulate blood pressure through angiotensin 4. Manufactures erythropoietin for the production of red blood cells
Why are kids at higher risk for kidney trauma?
the kidneys are lower in relation to the ribs making them more exposed to injury
When do the kidneys achieve full size and function?
by the time a child reaches adolescence (age 13)
How much urine is in the newborn bladder when the reflex action to empty is stimulated?
approximately 15 mL
What is cryptorchidism?
a condition in which one or both testes do not descend
How is cryptorchidism treated?
1. Administer hormones to promote dissension 2. Orchiopexy for surgical correction.
What is acute glomerulonephritis?
an allergic reaction to a specific infection (group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal of the ear or throat) that occurs approximately three weeks after the infection
What causes acute glomerulonephritis?
group A beta-hemolytic strep
What are the symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis?
1. Grossly bloody or smokey colored urine 2. Headache 3. Periorbital edema 4. Initial high fever that then comes down to around 100 degrees F 5. Mild hypertension
What age group has the highest risk for glomerulonephritis?
children ages 6-7; most common in boys
What is enuresis?
involuntary urination beyond the age when control of urination commonly is acquired
What are the physiological causes of enuresis?
1. Deep sleep 2. Small bladder capacity 3. Urinary tract infection
What are the psychological causes of enuresis?
1. Can be a symptom of sexual abuse 2. Emotional stress 3. Rigorous toilet training
What symptoms would the nurse observe in a child with nephrotic syndrome?
1. Presenting edema of the eyes and ankles that progresses to generalized edema 2. Appetite loss 3. Irritability 4. Ascites
Who is at great risk for developing a UTI?
1. Females due to having a shorter urethra than males 2. Usually occurs after 4 months of age 3. "Diaper age" 4. Children ages 2-6
What causes a UTI?
bacteria that travels to bladder; most commonly caused by intestinal bacteria from incorrect wiping after using the toilet