Peds Chapter 39-40 Test
Genitourinary and Musculoskeletal
Terms in this set (53)
What are the functions of the kidneys?
1. Excrete excess water and waste products
2. Maintain balance of electrolytes and acid/base
3. Regulate blood pressure through angiotensin
4. Manufactures erythropoietin for the production of red blood cells
Why are kids at higher risk for kidney trauma?
the kidneys are lower in relation to the ribs making them more exposed to injury
When do the kidneys achieve full size and function?
by the time a child reaches adolescence (age 13)
How much urine is in the newborn bladder when the reflex action to empty is stimulated?
approximately 15 mL
What is cryptorchidism?
a condition in which one or both testes do not descend
How is cryptorchidism treated?
1. Administer hormones to promote dissension
2. Orchiopexy for surgical correction.
What is acute glomerulonephritis?
an allergic reaction to a specific infection (group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal of the ear or throat) that occurs approximately three weeks after the infection
What causes acute glomerulonephritis?
group A beta-hemolytic
What are the symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis?
1. Grossly bloody or smokey colored urine
3. Periorbital edema
4. Initial high fever that then comes down to around 100 degrees F
5. Mild hypertension
What age group has the highest risk for glomerulonephritis?
children ages 6-7; most common in boys
What is enuresis?
involuntary urination beyond the age when control of urination commonly is acquired
What are the physiological causes of enuresis?
2. Small bladder capacity
3. Urinary tract infection
What are the psychological causes of enuresis?
Can be a symptom of sexual abuse
2. Emotional stress
3. Rigorous toilet training
What symptoms would the nurse observe in a child with nephrotic syndrome?
1. Presenting edema of the eyes and ankles that progresses to generalized edema
2. Appetite loss
Who is at great risk for developing a UTI?
1. Females due to having a shorter urethra than males
2. Usually occurs after 4 months of age
3. "Diaper age"
4. Children ages 2-6
What causes a UTI?
bacteria that travels to bladder; most commonly caused by intestinal bacteria from incorrect wiping after using the toilet
What the symptoms of UTI?
4. Foul-smelling urine
5. Weight loss
6. Increased urination
How is a UTI diagnosed?
by collecting and culturing a clean catch urine specimen
How is a UTI treated?
What are the nursing interventions when treating a child with a urinary tract infection?
1. Observe for increased symptoms
2. Monitor intake and output
3. Encourage increased fluid intake to dilute urine and flush the bladder
What is pyelonephritis?
inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis that is typically caused by a UTI that moves up ureter
What are the symptoms of pyelonephritis?
similar to the symptoms of a UTI but with flank and abdominal pain
What is amenorrhea?
the absence of menstruation
What are the signs and symptoms of amenorrhea?
1. Primary amenorrhea; menstruation hasn't happened at all yet
2. Secondary amenorrhea; missing three or more periods after menses often caused by emotional stress
What is mittelschmerz?
pain experienced during ovulation
How is PMS treated?
1. Reduced salt intake
2. Mild analgesics
3. Local heat
4. Oral contraceptives
What is the function of joints?
connects bone to bone
What is the function of cartilage?
a firm, elastic, flexible type of connective tissue of a translucent whitish or yellowish color; gristle
What is the function of a soft spot?
the bones of the skull are not fused at birth to accommodate a narrow birth canal
What is the significance of epiphyseal plate cartilage?
when it is no longer present it means that bone growth is complete
When does bone growth stop?
bone growth takes place between birth and puberty, and most bone growth is completed by age 20
What are some important cast care teaching points?
1. The client may experience a warm sensation when the cast is applied
2. Don't stick anything down the cast
3. Use a hair dryer on the cool setting to help alleviate itching
What should the nurse assess when caring for patient in a cast?
1. The Five Ps: Pain, Pulse, Parasthesia, Paralysis, pallor
4. Hot spots
5. Cast fit
What is a complete fracture?
separated fragments of bone
What is an incomplete fracture?
the bones are partially joined
What is a greenstick fracture?
an incomplete fracture where the bone bends; common fracture in children under the age of 10
What is a compound/open fracture?
fractured bone penetrates skin
What is a simple/closed fracture?
a single break in the bone without skin penetration
What is a spiral fracture?
a fracture that occurs when the bone has been twisted and the fracture line resembles a spiral; frequently associated with child abuse
What is compartment syndrome?
a serious neurovascular concern when there is increased pressure within the muscle compartment that causes a decrease in circulation
once a fracture has been immobilized, any pain could be a sign of compartment syndrome
What is osteomyelitis?
infection of the bone
What are the signs and symptoms of osteomyelitis?
4. Localized tenderness
5. Limited joint motion
6. Typically manifests from an injury, puncture, or invasive procedure
How is osteomyelitis diagnosed?
1. CBC blood test
2. Radiography (later)
What activity level is recommended for children with Muscular Dystrophy?
encourage activity that is as normal as possible to delay muscle atrophy/contracture
What is Ewing Sarcoma?
a malignant tumor found in the bone marrow of long bones of older school-aged or adolescent boys
What is the cardinal symptom of Ewing Sarcoma?
pain at the tumor site
What is Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis?
the most common connective tissue disease of childhood
What is the cardinal symptom of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis?
joint inflammation that results in irreversible joint changes if left untreated
How is Juvenile Rheumatoid Rrthritis treated?
1. Drug therapy that includes NSAIDs and ASA
2. Physical therapy
What is an important teaching point for the family of a child with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis?
teach the family that the child should NOT stop taking the prescribed medications
What age group is screened for scoliosis?
screenings are performed in 5th - 8th grade and is diagnosed more frequently in girls
What health promotion strategies are important when treating a child with scoliosis?
2. Positive body image
3. Therapy compliance
What is the formula for weight based dosage calculation?
know how to figure weight based dosage calculations for the test
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