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The destruction of the plain's Indians way of life
Terms in this set (23)
Name two reasons why the buffalo were hunted?
To use their warm coats to make clothing Sell the buffalo hide to be turned into leather
How did the railroad encourage buffalo hunting?
The railroad brought hunters to the Plains and transported the hides back to the city
How many buffalo were killed from the southern herd 1872-74?
By 1880 how many whites were on the plains hunting buffalo?
What had happened to the northern herd by 1883?
The northern herd was gone
How did the extermination of the buffalo help government policy?
-it stopped the nomadic lifestyle of the Indians wanting to follow the buffalo
-The treaty rights of the Plains Indians to hunt the buffalo ended once the buffalo went .
-Plains Indians now needed to learn to farm for food for survival
-It was now easier to build railroads without Plains Indians resistance .
-Now the plains were opened up for cattle ranching
What did some Plains Indians start to do now the buffalo was gone?
Cattle ranching or farming crops
Were the plains indians successful at farming this?
No- many cattle herds were badly affected by disease and the crops failed year after year
What happened to the Reservation Indians?
They became dependent on the government for food handouts
What did the government do to prevent resistance?
Reduced food rations to punish the Plains Indians often resulting in starvation or the spread of illnesses
Why did the US government decide to phase out the reservations by the 1880s?
The white American opinion was agreed that allowing Plains Indians to keep large reservations meant they tried to cling on to their old ways of life
What happened to the Great Sioux Reservation in 1889?
Six small Sioux reservations were created and any left over land was sol
What was set up to take over the chief's powers?
Councils- these were easy to manipulate through threats and bribes
Wh at took over the power of the chiefs' powers to judge and punish in 1883?
Why were these courts abolished in 1885?
Because US federal law courts took over-this meant the Plain Indians had lost all ability to govern themselves
How did government agents encourage good behaviour?
Bribes of increased food rations or medical supplies
Why did some Plains Indians join the Indian Agency Police?
They were fed, clothed and sheltered and were generally able to maintain a reasonable standard of living
What were living conditions like on the reservations?
Plains Indians could no longer feed, clothe or shelter themselves, crops failed due to droughts, pests or diseases and dependence on the government increased
What was the reality of life for the Plains Indians by the late 1880s?
Most seemed to sink into poverty and sickness, surviving on government handouts
What did the Dawes Act of 1887 do ?
Each Plains Indian family was allotted a 160 acre share of reservation land, singletons got 80 acres and orphans under 18 got 40 acres
What had to be added for the act to be passed?
That all reservation land left over could be sold to whites
How much land had the Plains Indians lost by 1890?
Half of the land they owned in 1887
What year was the Indian Frontier officially declared closed?
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