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50 terms

Nutrition, Metabolism, Body Tempature

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Macronutrients
Proteins- 4.5 grams, Carbohydrate 4.5 grams, Fats 9.0 grams...major source of calories
Micronutrients
Vitamins, Minerals, Water 60% of food
Essential Nutrients
cannot be made in body...need diet to outsource. minerals, most vitamins, 8 amino acids
Nonessential Nutrients
can be made by body- most amino acids (12)
Types of long chain amino acids
Fibrous protein and globular protein
Fibrous Protein
used for cytoskeleton and ECM
Globular Proteins
1. channels/pumps 2. fighting infection 3. muscle contraction Meat,fish,eggs,milk---complete proteins (have all amino acids) can be found in plants, seeds, nuts, and cereals
Uses for proteins and amino acids
1. Make structural components of cells and tissues (replace old) 2. Burned as fuel 3. Converted to fat and stored
All-or-None Rule
All amino acids must be present to make proteins in the body
Adequate Caloric intake
if inadequate, then burn a.a for ATP
Hormonal Controls
certain hormones accelerate protein synthesis..ex. GH and steroids (testosterone)
Uses of Proteins/Amino Acids depends on:
All-or-None rule, Adequate caloric intake, Hormonal controls, and Nitrogen Balance
Positive Nitrogen Balance
making more protein then breaking down for energy..ex: growing children, pregnant women, or recovering for illness/surgery
Negative Nitrogen Balance
breaking down more protein for energy exceeds the amount of protein being incorporated into tissues. ex; poor diet, starvation, or during physical or emotion stress
Carbohydrates
simple and complex sugars, used for fuel (glucose is primary) and other sugars are converted to glucose by liver to ATP
Dietary Sources of Carbohydrates
1. Monosaccharides/disaccharides 2. Polysaccharides
Monosaccharides and Disaccharides
found in friuts, sugar cane, honey, milk
Polysaccharides
complex cards, starches from grains and veggies
Dietary Carbohydrate Requirement
at least 130 g/day to support brain activity. complex carbs provide nutrients along with calories, simple sugar/carbs are "empty calories"
Lipids uses in body:
1. serve as fuel (concentrated source of calories) 2. absorption of fat-soluble vitamins 3. make up cellular membranes 4. flavor and tenderness of food 5. cholesterol to synthesis of hormones; integral part of cell membranes
Fatty deposits uses:
1. protective cushion around body organs. 2. insulating layer beneath skin 3. fuel reserve
Saturated Fats
meats, dairy foods, hydrogenated oils (trans fat)
Unsaturated Fats
seeds, nuts, most veggie oils
Cholesterol
egg yolk, meats, shell fish, dairy -- liver produced 85% of all blood cholesterol
Dietary Requirements of Lipids
no more that 30% of total calories, limit saturated fat into to 10%, limit cholesterol to 300 mg/day
Vitamins
most are conenzymes - help with enzyme function. only Vit D, K, and B are made in body. no single food has them all
Water-soluble vitamins
absorbed in GI tract, excess is excreted in urine, B-complex and Vit C
Fat-soluble vitamins
bound to ingested lipids, excess is stored Vits A,D,E,K
Minerals
sodium, chlorine, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur plus 12 more
Anabolic chemical rxns
build larger, more complex molecules from simpler ones
Catabolic chemical rxns
break down complex molecules into simpler ones
Cellular Respiration
catabolic rxns where food molecules are broken down inside cells to produce ATP
Processing of Nutrients
Stage 1: digestion in GI tract. Stage 2. Nutrients absorbed from bld stream into cytoplasm Stage 3. oxidative breakdown in mitochondria
Stage 1 Digestion in GI tract
Proteins - a.a Carbs - simple sugars/glucose Fats- glycerol, fatty acids
Stage 2 Nutrients absorbed
Anabolism (aa=proteins, glucose = glycagon, glycol/fattyacids = lipids/fats) vs. Catabolism (everything = pyvric acid and actyl CoA)
Stage 3 Oxidative breakdown
Kreb's Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation
Oxidation
loss of electrons (hydrogen)
reduction
gain of electrons (hydrogen)
Transfer hydrogens
FAD and NAD
Carbohydrate Metabolism (major steps)
Glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, Oxidative Phosphorylation
Glycolysis
converts 1 glucose to 2 pyruvic acid molecules
Phase 1 (glycolysis)
Sugar Activation- converts to fructose 1,2-bisP
Phase 2 (glycolysis)
Sugar Cleavage- converted into 2 3-carbon isomers
Phase 3 (glycolysis)
Sugar Oxidation and ATP Formation- loses H's. phosphates attached to catabolic
Final produces of Glycolysis
2 pyruvic acid, 2 NADH + H, 4 ATP (net of 2)
Citric Acid Cycle
completely broken down, occurs in mitochondria, produces very high energy electrons
Oxidative Phosphorylation
occurs in mitochondrial membrane - requires O2
Glycogenesis
formation of glycogen from excess glucose- activated by insulin..stores glucose for later use. happens in liver and skeletal muscle
Glycogenolysis
breakdown of glycogen to form glucose - occurs when bld glucose drops, happens in liver, kidney, intestinal cells
Gluconeogenesis
forming new glucose molecules from Noncarbohydrate molecules. occurs in liver when too little glucose available