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Proteins- 4.5 grams, Carbohydrate 4.5 grams, Fats 9.0 grams...major source of calories
cannot be made in body...need diet to outsource. minerals, most vitamins, 8 amino acids
1. channels/pumps 2. fighting infection 3. muscle contraction Meat,fish,eggs,milk---complete proteins (have all amino acids) can be found in plants, seeds, nuts, and cereals
Uses for proteins and amino acids
1. Make structural components of cells and tissues (replace old) 2. Burned as fuel 3. Converted to fat and stored
Uses of Proteins/Amino Acids depends on:
All-or-None rule, Adequate caloric intake, Hormonal controls, and Nitrogen Balance
Positive Nitrogen Balance
making more protein then breaking down for energy..ex: growing children, pregnant women, or recovering for illness/surgery
Negative Nitrogen Balance
breaking down more protein for energy exceeds the amount of protein being incorporated into tissues. ex; poor diet, starvation, or during physical or emotion stress
simple and complex sugars, used for fuel (glucose is primary) and other sugars are converted to glucose by liver to ATP
Dietary Carbohydrate Requirement
at least 130 g/day to support brain activity. complex carbs provide nutrients along with calories, simple sugar/carbs are "empty calories"
Lipids uses in body:
1. serve as fuel (concentrated source of calories) 2. absorption of fat-soluble vitamins 3. make up cellular membranes 4. flavor and tenderness of food 5. cholesterol to synthesis of hormones; integral part of cell membranes
Fatty deposits uses:
1. protective cushion around body organs. 2. insulating layer beneath skin 3. fuel reserve
Dietary Requirements of Lipids
no more that 30% of total calories, limit saturated fat into to 10%, limit cholesterol to 300 mg/day
most are conenzymes - help with enzyme function. only Vit D, K, and B are made in body. no single food has them all
catabolic rxns where food molecules are broken down inside cells to produce ATP
Processing of Nutrients
Stage 1: digestion in GI tract. Stage 2. Nutrients absorbed from bld stream into cytoplasm Stage 3. oxidative breakdown in mitochondria
Stage 1 Digestion in GI tract
Proteins - a.a Carbs - simple sugars/glucose Fats- glycerol, fatty acids
Stage 2 Nutrients absorbed
Anabolism (aa=proteins, glucose = glycagon, glycol/fattyacids = lipids/fats) vs. Catabolism (everything = pyvric acid and actyl CoA)
Citric Acid Cycle
completely broken down, occurs in mitochondria, produces very high energy electrons
formation of glycogen from excess glucose- activated by insulin..stores glucose for later use. happens in liver and skeletal muscle
breakdown of glycogen to form glucose - occurs when bld glucose drops, happens in liver, kidney, intestinal cells
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