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Proteins- 4.5 grams, Carbohydrate 4.5 grams, Fats 9.0 grams...major source of calories


Vitamins, Minerals, Water 60% of food

Essential Nutrients

cannot be made in body...need diet to outsource. minerals, most vitamins, 8 amino acids

Nonessential Nutrients

can be made by body- most amino acids (12)

Types of long chain amino acids

Fibrous protein and globular protein

Fibrous Protein

used for cytoskeleton and ECM

Globular Proteins

1. channels/pumps 2. fighting infection 3. muscle contraction Meat,fish,eggs,milk---complete proteins (have all amino acids) can be found in plants, seeds, nuts, and cereals

Uses for proteins and amino acids

1. Make structural components of cells and tissues (replace old) 2. Burned as fuel 3. Converted to fat and stored

All-or-None Rule

All amino acids must be present to make proteins in the body

Adequate Caloric intake

if inadequate, then burn a.a for ATP

Hormonal Controls

certain hormones accelerate protein synthesis..ex. GH and steroids (testosterone)

Uses of Proteins/Amino Acids depends on:

All-or-None rule, Adequate caloric intake, Hormonal controls, and Nitrogen Balance

Positive Nitrogen Balance

making more protein then breaking down for energy..ex: growing children, pregnant women, or recovering for illness/surgery

Negative Nitrogen Balance

breaking down more protein for energy exceeds the amount of protein being incorporated into tissues. ex; poor diet, starvation, or during physical or emotion stress


simple and complex sugars, used for fuel (glucose is primary) and other sugars are converted to glucose by liver to ATP

Dietary Sources of Carbohydrates

1. Monosaccharides/disaccharides 2. Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides and Disaccharides

found in friuts, sugar cane, honey, milk


complex cards, starches from grains and veggies

Dietary Carbohydrate Requirement

at least 130 g/day to support brain activity. complex carbs provide nutrients along with calories, simple sugar/carbs are "empty calories"

Lipids uses in body:

1. serve as fuel (concentrated source of calories) 2. absorption of fat-soluble vitamins 3. make up cellular membranes 4. flavor and tenderness of food 5. cholesterol to synthesis of hormones; integral part of cell membranes

Fatty deposits uses:

1. protective cushion around body organs. 2. insulating layer beneath skin 3. fuel reserve

Saturated Fats

meats, dairy foods, hydrogenated oils (trans fat)

Unsaturated Fats

seeds, nuts, most veggie oils


egg yolk, meats, shell fish, dairy -- liver produced 85% of all blood cholesterol

Dietary Requirements of Lipids

no more that 30% of total calories, limit saturated fat into to 10%, limit cholesterol to 300 mg/day


most are conenzymes - help with enzyme function. only Vit D, K, and B are made in body. no single food has them all

Water-soluble vitamins

absorbed in GI tract, excess is excreted in urine, B-complex and Vit C

Fat-soluble vitamins

bound to ingested lipids, excess is stored Vits A,D,E,K


sodium, chlorine, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur plus 12 more

Anabolic chemical rxns

build larger, more complex molecules from simpler ones

Catabolic chemical rxns

break down complex molecules into simpler ones

Cellular Respiration

catabolic rxns where food molecules are broken down inside cells to produce ATP

Processing of Nutrients

Stage 1: digestion in GI tract. Stage 2. Nutrients absorbed from bld stream into cytoplasm Stage 3. oxidative breakdown in mitochondria

Stage 1 Digestion in GI tract

Proteins - a.a Carbs - simple sugars/glucose Fats- glycerol, fatty acids

Stage 2 Nutrients absorbed

Anabolism (aa=proteins, glucose = glycagon, glycol/fattyacids = lipids/fats) vs. Catabolism (everything = pyvric acid and actyl CoA)

Stage 3 Oxidative breakdown

Kreb's Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation


loss of electrons (hydrogen)


gain of electrons (hydrogen)

Transfer hydrogens


Carbohydrate Metabolism (major steps)

Glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, Oxidative Phosphorylation


converts 1 glucose to 2 pyruvic acid molecules

Phase 1 (glycolysis)

Sugar Activation- converts to fructose 1,2-bisP

Phase 2 (glycolysis)

Sugar Cleavage- converted into 2 3-carbon isomers

Phase 3 (glycolysis)

Sugar Oxidation and ATP Formation- loses H's. phosphates attached to catabolic

Final produces of Glycolysis

2 pyruvic acid, 2 NADH + H, 4 ATP (net of 2)

Citric Acid Cycle

completely broken down, occurs in mitochondria, produces very high energy electrons

Oxidative Phosphorylation

occurs in mitochondrial membrane - requires O2


formation of glycogen from excess glucose- activated by insulin..stores glucose for later use. happens in liver and skeletal muscle


breakdown of glycogen to form glucose - occurs when bld glucose drops, happens in liver, kidney, intestinal cells


forming new glucose molecules from Noncarbohydrate molecules. occurs in liver when too little glucose available

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