APHUG Ch11 Key Issue 1
Where is industry distributed? Flashcards for Rubenstein's Human Geography textbook, chapter 11 (industry).
Terms in this set (30)
Agriculture v Industry
Agriculture occupies 1/4 of Earth's land, industry takes up less than 1%
refers to the manufacturing of goods in a factory
utilizes a large number of people, machinery, and money to turn out valuable products
a person (typically a woman) who works in a facotry assembling one small part over and over again.(typically in Mexico) These factories usually have poor healt benefits and mistreat workers.
4 world industry regions
NW Europe, East Europe, East North America, and East Asia (each one of these is divided into subdivisions)
Western Europe subdivisions
United Kingdom (UK), Rhine-Ruhr Valley, mid-Rhine, Northern Italy
dominated world manufacturing during the 1800s by producing over 1/2 of the world's cotton fabric/iron and 2/3 of the world's coal. UK lost its industrial leadership in the 1900s because of outdated and deteriorated factories. It turned to high-tech industries, lowered taxes on businesses, and converted gov't monopolies to private ownership.
British industries are more likely to be in SE England, near London. This area is closer to the Chennel Tunnel, which has reduced time needed to ship goods to Europe
Started in Northern England and Southern Scotland in the late 1700s, a combined wave of the inventions of hundreds of mechanical devices. It created a rise in productivity and increased standards of living, as well as resulting in social, economic, and political changes.
Industrial Revolution diffusion
Diffused to N America and Europe in the 1800s and the rest of the world in the 1900s. War delayed the industrial revolution in Europe (French Revolution, Napoleonic Wars)
Rhine-Ruhr Valley subregion
NW Germany, Belgium, France, Netherlands (Rhine/Ruhr are 2 rivers). Industry is dispersed rather than clustered in cities. Iron and steel manufacturing, as well as building metal things like locomotives and machinery.
2nd most important industrial area, SW Germany, NE France, Luxembourg. German portion includes the cities of Frankfurt(goods for consumers), Stuttgart (skilled labor jobs--Mercedes-Benz and Audi), and Mannheim (chemical industry--fibers/dyes/pharmaceuticals). French portion, Alsace/Lorraine, contains iron-ore and produces steel.
Northern Italy subregion
in the Po River Valley, textile manufacturing and other industries. Has a lot of cheap labor and cheap hydroelectricity from the Alps. Po Valley is 1/5 of Italy but contains half the population
Eastern Europe subdivisions
Central, St. Petersburg, Volga, Urals (top 4 subregions), and then Kuznetsk (established by the Communists), Eastern Ukraine, Silesia
oldest industrial region, near Moscow, few natural resources but the largest market, skilled labor, mostly linen/cotton/wool/silk but also chemicals and light industrial goods
St. Petersburg subregion
one of the earliest centers of industry and 2nd largest city (St. Petersburg), shipbuilding and naval services, processed food, textiles, chemicals
on the Volga/Kama rivers, grew during WWII, contains largest petroleum/natural gas fields, motor vehicle industy, oil refining, chemicals, metallurgy, fur/leather
near Ural mountains in Russia and Kazakhstan, has over 1,000 types of minerals. raw materials encourage iron/steel/chemicals/machinery, but hindered by lack of energy sources like natural gas.
large reserves of coal/iron ore
Eastern Ukraine subregion
Major plants at Krivoy Rog, Ukraine. one of the world's largest coal reserves and iron ore, magnesium, and natural gas
Souther Poland/Czech Republic, important steel procudtion because of coal fields nearby, though iron ore must be imported
North American industry
industry arrived later than Western Europe, but grew faster. first textile mill was in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, 1791, built by Samuel Slater, second to the UK in 1860. Industry focused on processing food/lumber until the last third of the 1800s.
New England, Middle Atlantic, Mohawk Valley, Pittsburgh-Lake Erie, Western Great Lakes
New England subregion
oldest industrial area, started with cotton production, immigrants provided cheap labor, now skilled but expensive labor
Middle Atlantic subregion
Between NYC/Washington. Attracts industries that need consumers/foreign imports. Largest port=NYC. Industries: financial, communications, entertainment
Hudson River/Erie Canal. Cheap electicity from Niagara Falls helped build aluminum, paper, and electrochemical industries
Pittsburgh-Lake Erie subregion
steel production because of poximity to Appalachian resources. Also has industries that manufacture goods using a lot of steel
Western Great Lakes subregion
Detriot to Chicago, Chicago is a hub of sea/air/road transports. Machinery, transport, clothing, furniture, agricultural machinery, and food industries
St. Lawrence River/Ontario Peninsula: cheap electicity from Niagara falls, attracts aluminum, paper, flour, sugar, and textile industries. Most steel in Hamilton, Ontario. Most automobiles in Toronto.
East Asian subdivisions
East Asia has very few natural resources but a huge labor force. Japan focuses on highly skilled labor, like automobiles, electrionics, and precision instruments. China has the 2nd-highest manufacturing output and is concentrated on the East Coast and the largest labor force.