??? A flurry of studies took place in the 1970s examining whether a consistent order of morpheme acquisition could be shown. A majority of these studies showed fairly consistent orders of acquisition for selected morphemes. For example: Among English, as additional language learners of English, the cluster of features, including the suffix "-ing", the plural form, and the linguistics copula were found to consistently precede others, i.e.; the grammar article, auxiliary verb, and third person singular form. However, studies were widely criticized, as insufficient attention was given to the overuse of these features. More recent scholarship prefers to view the acquisition of each linguistic feature as a gradual and complex process. In this case there were idiosyncratic uses considered outside the obligatory contexts in the L2 and sporadic, but inconsistent use of the features. For that reason most scholarship since the 1980s has focused on the sequence rather than the order of feature acquisition. Offer one-on-one assistance when possible:
Some ELLs may not answer voluntarily in class or ask for your help even if they need it. ELLs may smile and nod, but this does not necessarily mean that they understand. Go over to their desk to offer individual coaching in a friendly way. For convenience, it may be helpful to seat ELLs near your desk.
Assign a peer partner:
Identify a classmate who really wants to help your ELL as a peer. This student can make sure that the ELL understands what he or she is supposed to do. It will be even more helpful if the peer partner knows the ELL's first language.
Post a visual daily schedule:
Even if ELLs do not yet understand all of the words that you speak, it is possible for them to understand the structure of each day. Whether through chalkboard art or images on Velcro, you can post the daily schedule each morning. By writing down times and having pictures next to words like lunch, wash hands, math, and field trip, ELLs can have a general sense of the upcoming day.
Use an interpreter:
On-site interpreters can be very helpful in smoothing out misunderstandings that arise due to communication problems and cultural differences. If an on-site interpreter (a paid or volunteer school staff position) is not available, try to find an adult - perhaps another parent who is familiar with the school or "knows the system" - who is willing to serve this purpose. In difficult situations, it would not be appropriate for another child to translate.
ELLs can make unintentional "mistakes" as they are trying hard to adjust to a new cultural setting. They are constantly transferring what they know as acceptable behaviors from their own culture to the U.S. classroom and school. Be patient as ELLs learn English and adjust.
Invite their culture into the classroom:
Encourage ELLs to share their language and culture with you and your class. Show-and-tell is a good opportunity for ELLs to bring in something representative of their culture, if they wish. They could also tell a popular story or folktale using words, pictures, gestures, and movements. ELLs could also try to teach the class some words from their native language.
Use materials related to your ELLs' cultures:
Children respond when they see books, topics, characters, and images that are familiar. Try to achieve a good balance of books and materials that include different cultures. Visit our recommended bilingual books section.
Label classroom objects in both languages:
Labeling classroom objects will allow ELLs to better understand their immediate surroundings. These labels will also assist you when explaining or giving directions. Start with everyday items, such as "door/puerta," "book/libro," and "chair/silla."
- Creating a word bank for rainforest terms with definitions to use as a dictionary/reference
- Observing of realia to write reports. Students describe & classify different objects in pairs.
- Brainstorming, using pictures and content, to construct meaning. Students write definitions on flash cards.
- Gathering information using books, web sites, and magazines. Students describe and define animals, their habitats, diet and appearance in groups.
Making up riddles of animals and sharing them orally. Students describe, infer and provide three clues based on reports.
-Comparing and contrasting two books through the making of a trifold/Venn Diagram. Students predicted, drew conclusions, inferred and made connections.
- Playing word game "Who has, I have" using flashcards with definitions. Students predict, draw conclusions, infer, and make connections.
1. Preproduction/ Silent and Receptive Stage- Students do not verbally respond to communication in the second language although there is receptive processing. The student should be actively included in all class activities, but not forced to speak. Employing the Natural Approach and Total Physical Response (TPR) strategies will allow students time and clues to encourage participation.
2. Early Production- Students begin to respond verbally using one/two words. They begin to develop the ability to understand words often repeated in a familiar context. Students begin to develop listening skills and build their passive and receptive (listening) vocabulary. They may begin to group two and three words together in short phrases to respond to a question or express an idea.
3. Speech Emergence- They are able to chunk simple words and phrases into sentences that may or may not be grammatically correct. Students begin to respond in simple sentences when they are comfortable in the setting and engaged in activities they understand. Instruction should be focused on strategies that ensure comprehensible input. All interactions with students in this stage should be focused on communication rather than form. Teachers and other students should encourage and be receptive to all attempts to communicate (gestures, attentiveness, following directions, any oral participation). Teachers and students should model correct English usage in all communication, but not correct errors.
4. Intermediate- They are able to speak in more complex sentences and to catch and correct many of their own errors. They are also wilings to ask questions to clarify what they do not understand. Learners at this stage may be able to communicate fairy well, but they have large gaps in their vocabulary, as well as in their grammatical and syntactical understanding of the language. Students in this stage gradually make the transition to more elaborate speech. With continued comprehensible input and communication-focused interactions, students may begin to link familiar phrases and generate sentences to express their ideas. Teachers need to continually model language usage, extend receptive vocabulary, and provide frequent opportunities for students to produce language in comfortable situations.
5. Advanced- Advanced fluency students have achieved cognitive language proficiency in their learned language. They demonstrate near-native ability and use complex, multiphrase and multiclause sentences to convey their ideas. Though accents are still detectable and idiomatic expressions are sometimes used incorrectly, the language learner has become essentially fluent. Students in this stage begin to engage in non-cued conversation and to speak fluently using social and academic language. It is appropriate to begin to direct students' attention to grammar, idiomatic expressions, and reading comprehension skills. Activities should be designed to develop skills in higher order thinking, vocabulary development and cognitive processing. Students in this stage need deliberate instruction on reading and writing skills and frequent opportunities to practice them. `
1) The Direct Method
In this method the teaching is done entirely in the target language. The learner is not allowed to use his or her mother tongue. Grammar rules are avoided and there is emphasis on good pronunciation. With the direct method of instruction, students inductively learn grammatical rules by speaking and listening. The direct method of instruction is based on the principle that second languages should be acquired through many of the same ways as first languages.
The theory behind this method is that learning a language means acquiring habits. There is much practice of dialogues of every situations. New language is first heard and extensively drilled before being seen in its written form. It is a form of behaviorism. (Order: listen, speak, read, write), language is a habit.
3) The structural approach
This method sees language as a complex of grammatical rules which are to be learned one at a time in a set order. So for example the verb "to be" is introduced and practised before the present continuous tense which uses "to be" as an auxiliary.
The theory underlying this method is that a language can be acquired only when the learner is receptive and has no mental blocks. By various methods it is suggested to the student that the language is easy - and in this way the mental blocks to learning are removed.
5) Communicative language teaching (CLT)
The focus of this method is to enable the learner to communicate effectively and appropriately in the various situations she would be likely to find herself in. The content of CLT courses are functions such as inviting, suggesting, complaining or notions such as the expression of time, quantity, location. Emphasizes the skills that are used in real communication, rather than strictly academic exercises. Writing a letter to a friend is a communicative task that requires the integration of a number of different skills.
6) The Silent Way
This is so called because the aim of the teacher is to say as little as possible in order that the learner can be in control of what he wants to say. No use is made of the mother tongue.
7) Community Language Learning
In this method attempts are made to build strong personal links between the teacher and student so that there are no blocks to learning. There is much talk in the mother tongue which is translated by the teacher for repetition by the student.
8) The Natural Approach
This approach, propounded by Professor S. Krashen, stresses the similarities between learning the first and second languages. There is no correction of mistakes. Learning takes place by the students being exposed to language that is comprehensible or made comprehensible to them. Sociolinguistic approach
9) The focus of the teaching is on the completion of a task which in itself is interesting to the learners. Learners use the language they already have to complete the task and there is little correction of errors.
10) Grammar-translation Approach- A method of foreign or second language teaching which makes use of translation and grammar study as the main teaching and learning activities.
Discourse Competence refers to the way ideas are linked across sentences (in written discourse) or utterances (in spoken discourse). We use two main aspects to undestand Discourse Competence::
Cohesion, which refers to how we link ideas linguistically. For example, we use pronouns to refer to what or who has been mentioned previously, e.g., he, it, one, none, that, this. Another example includes the use of an auxiliary verb as a substitute for the main verb, e.g., 'Do you work here?' 'Yes, I do.'
Coherence, which refers to how we link the meanings of sentences or utterances in written or spoken texts.
A: It's hot in here.
B: I'll open a window.
Strategic Competence refers to a person's ability to keep communication going when there is a communication breakdown or to enhance the effectiveness of the communication. It means being able to get one's message across through use of repetition, volume, or many of the other ways listed below. This ability is especially important to lower level English language learners. Typical examples are:
1. The learner uses an approximation in the form of a structure or vocabulary item which s/he knows is incorrect but will get the message across.
2. The learner uses word coinage, i.e., s/he invents a new word to get the message across.
Circumlocution - The learner describes/defines the object (or its purpose) or action, e.g., 'You know, you use it to clean your teeth.'
Transfer - The learner uses his or her native language, translating word for word or not bothering to translate at all.
1. Asking for help
3. Pause fillers - use of 'er', 'um', 'you know', 'let's see', 'sort of', etc.
4. Topic avoidance - the learner avoids or changes the topic whens/he lacks the proficiency to continue.
5. Message abandonment - the learner simply stops in mid-utterance, lacking the proficiency to continue.
Learners within a behaviorist classroom are responsible for responding appropriately to commands or antecedents provided by the facilitator. In the audiolingual method, learners repeat oral and pattern drills. Total physical response (TPR), a method that is also used, requires learners to move as commands are announced. (Diaz-Rico, 2004)
One strategy traditional behavioralists use is the grammar-translation method. This method requires the facilitator to explain vocabulary words, phrases, and sentence structure. A second strategy is the audiolingual method. Students repeat pattern drills that are scaffolded. As the learner masters the drill, he then begins the next pattern. A third strategy, TPR combines language and movement. Direct learning "emphasizes...learning of facts, sequences steps, or rules" (Diaz-Rico, 2004, p.35). Master learning is another type of behaviorialist instruction, which divides a course "into small units with specific objectives. Students progress at their own rate" (Diaz-Rico, 2004, pp. 35-36) as they master each proceeding step.
1) Narrative- Retelling familiar stories, developing sequels, alternate endings, and updated versions of favorite tales. Students tell about events in their own lives and the lives of those around them. Learners also begin creating original stories, taking into account plot, characters, and even figurative language.
2) Descriptive- Writing involves describing things clearly that the readers are able to form pictures in their minds of what is being written. It involves the use of details generated by all five senses. This type of writing can aid students in increasing their vocabulary and can help them to clarify their understanding of new content.
3) Expository- It is used to explain or inform. Works are written around a central topic and supported with facts and information that are relevan to the topic.
4) Argumentative- Students argue a position on something. They choose (or are assigned) a side, present their arguments, and then explain why their position is more logical, more correct, or otherwise stronger than that of the opposition.
5) Procedural- Writing that provides readers with information about the necessary steps to accomplish a particular task. It is the kind of writing seen in how-to-books and operating manuals.
1) Direct Method (Natural Method)- Based on the principle that second languages should be acquired in much the same way as first languages. Skills are slowly developed as students acquire targeted vocabulary through repeated exposure to authentic language usage, supported by pictures, objects, and pantomime. Oral language skills are emphasized, but students are not required to speak; instead, teachers provide students with materials in the target language and permit them to take their time acclimating to the new language to create a stress-free environment. Proponents of this method believe that if students are not forced to speak and are provided with sufficient comprehensible input, they will produce comprehensible output when they are ready. according to this theory, students learn grammar through induction; that is, they figure out the rules of the language as they acquire speaking and listening skills, learning through a combined process of imitation and trial and error.
2) Grammar-Translation Method- Originally intended to assist students in reading and translating of foreign language literature. By teaching in students' native languages and concentrating on grammatical rules of a target language, instructors help students recognize similarities between their native and learned languages, aiding them in understanding grammatical rules and acquiring new vocabulary. It emphasized translating between languages in activities that allow students to develop strengths in reading and writing, believed to aid students in achieving greater accuracy in their use of the target language.
Negative: Students do not learn to speak and listen in the target language and therefore cannot gain proficiency.
3) Audio-Lingual Method- Oral-based approach to language instruction developed by linguists and behavioral psychologist. It started out as the Army Specialized Training program and was used to teach military personnel serving in World War 2 how to communicate with foreign soldiers and officers.
Like the direct method, ALM teaches the target language through repetition. Students engage in repetitive exercises that emphasize grammatical structural patterns and vocabulary and focus on key phrases and significant dialogue that are considered most useful to the particular circumstances. It is based in behavioral theories of psychology. As learners work through drills, instructors reward them for correct responses, encouraging them to produce more of the same.
**The use of oral practice and behavioral conditioning indicates that this is the audio-lingual method of language instruction.
4) Communicative Language Approach- Based on the notion that successful language acquisition comes from the need to communicate real meaning. To successfully acquire a new language, learners must be required to use real communication to engage their natural strategies for language acquisition. Task-based instruction is another instructional method that falls under the umbrella of communicative approach to language teaching, in TBI, lessons are designed around the completion of tasks that are either assigned by instructors or selected by students.
1) Push-in- Intended to maximize the time English learners spend in general education content classrooms. Teachers travel to content classrooms, providing additional support and services to language learners. They may use one-on-one instruction, assign small-group to language learners, or aid the content teacher in deliving whole-group instruction.
2) Team-teaching- Another effective way ESOL teachers implement a push-in model. ESOL teacher leads the classroom teacher in scaffolding and differentiating for the language learners in the class.
3) Small-group instruction- Another type of push-in service. In this model, the ESOL teacher takes a group of language learnenrs during independent work time and reinforces or reteaches skills that were covered in the content lesson.
4) Pull-Out- Take small groups of students from their content area classrooms for limited portions of the school day. They provide a safe environment for ELL to take academic risks, practice listening and speaking their new language, and participate in class without the fear or frustration. It also allows ESOL teachers to observe student growth closely, providing continual support and feedback until the student reaches proficiency.
5) Sheltered Instruction- Provides English Language Learners with access to appropriate grade-level content while supporting their need for ongoing language instruction. Students in these programs do not attend classes with English-speaking students but they do study the same curriculum. SIOP (sheltered instruction observation protocol)- addresses the multiple needs of language learners. It was designed to increase the academic achievement of second-language learners by supporting their linguistic development and making grade-level academic content comprehensible. It consists of 8 components
**Lesson prep, Building Background, Comprehensible Input, Learning Strategies, Interaction, Practice and Application, Lesson Delivery, and Review and Assessment
CAL (Center for Applied Linguistics)- promotes language learning in general and serves as an important resource to include research, materials development, and professional development.
NABE (National association for bilingual education)- promotes education among bilingual and multiingual students. magazines, journals, bilingual advocacy, etc.
OELA (Office of English Language Education)- Administered by the US Dept. of Education. It provides grants for practitioners and supports practical research of ESL teaching and learning. It maintains the national clearing hour for English Language Acquisition, which provides online data, a resource library, and information about grants, etc.
TESL- EJ- mediated e-journal for ESL
TESL JOURNAL- Free online collection of articles, journals, lessons, teaching ideas, and more.
TESOL- Association of professionals in the field with an international reacha nd promotes the development of standards, research, professionalism, and advocacy. It provides online courses and seminars, publishes books and journals, maintains an online job board, and participates in various modes of advocacy for ESOL teachers and professionals as well as studens.