Hist 115 Exam 2 Study Terms

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Terms in this set (89)
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut1st constitution in the coloniesMassachusetts Body of Liberties1641, First code of law in New England, Protected the rights of the individuals.Great Awakeninga religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1730s and 1740sFrench and Indian Wara war between France and England that erupted in 1754 in North America and ended in 1763Common Sensepamphlet designed by Paine to convince colonists to secede from BritainThomas PaineAuthor of Common SenseStamp Act1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.Proclamation ActForbade westward expansion across the Appalachian mountainsSugar ActTax on sugar and molassesDeclaratory Actact that stated that the King/Parliament could make any laws they wanted for the colonistsOlive Branch PetitionAn offer of peace sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George lllArticles of ConfederationPlan for national government ratified in 1781Sons of Libertymen joined together to go against stamp act, patriots, lead boycottsDeclaration of IndependenceSigned in 1776 by US revolutionaries; it declared the United States as a free state.Thomas JeffersonWrote the Declaration of IndependenceConfederationan alliance of independent statesShay's RebellionUprising of Massachusetts farmers who demanded debt reliefMount Vernon ConferenceMet to discuss trade barries between states and gain REVENUE through TAXINGAnnapolis Conventionmeeting to decide how to fix the Articles of ConfederationVirginia PlanRepresentation based on populationNew Jersey PlanEqual house and equal votes, opposed to VA plan. - William PattersonRoger Shermanproposed the Great CompromiseJames MadisonFather of ConstitutionWilliam PattersonProposed New Jersey PlanCensusA periodic and official count of a country's population.Apportionmentthe distribution of seats in the House of Representatives among the statesRedistrictingThe drawing of new electoral district boundary lines in response to population changes.Gerrymanderingthe drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbentBicameralA legislature consisting of two parts, or housesUnicameralOne-house legislatureFederalistSupporters of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government.Commerce CompromiseCongress was forbidden the power to tax the export of goods from any stateAntifederalista person who opposed the ratification of the ConstitutionPatrick Henry"Give me liberty or give me death" Anti-federalistJames WilsonPennsylvania delegate and Sherman introduced the 3/5 compromiseFederalist PapersWritten by Hamilton, Jay, & Madison to support ratification of the U.S. ConstituitonFederalist 10James Madison urges his country to reject factionFederalist 51Separation of powers in writingAlexander HamiltonFederalist papers author (A)John JayFederalist Papers author (J)Article 1 ConstitutionEstablishes Legislative branchArticle 2 Constitutionestablishes president as leader of the executive branchArticle 3 Constitutionjudicial branchArticle 4 Constitutionreserved powers for states (divorce, education, etc)Article 5 ConstitutionEstablishes Duties of OfficersArticle 6 ConstitutionEstablishes MeetingsArticle 7 ConstitutionEstablishes Voting1st AmendmentFreedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition2nd AmendmentRight to bear arms3rd AmendmentRestricts quartering of troops in private homes.4th AmendmentProtection against Unreasonable Search and Seizure5th AmendmentThe Right to Remain Silent/Double Jeopardy, right to due process6th AmendmentThe right to a Speedy Trial by jury, representation by an attorney for an accused person7th AmendmentRight to jury in civil trials.8th AmendmentProhibits excessive fines and excessive bail/and cruel unusual punishment9th AmendmentRights not included in Constitution go to the people10th AmendmentPowers Reserved to the StatesTerm of Congress2 years/6 yearssession of Congressperiod of time during which, each year, Congress assembles and conducts business, 2 per termSpecial Sessionis a period when the body convenes outside of the normal legislativeEnumerated PowersPowers given to the national government aloneImplied PowersPowers not specifically mentioned in the constitutionNecessary and Proper Clauseit provides congress with the authority to make all laws necessary and properFilibusterA lengthy speech designed to delay or kill the vote on a bill; used only in the SenateGermanenessHouse rule that requires that amendment must be relevant to attached billSpeaker of the HouseJohn BoehnerPresident Pro TemporeOrrin HatchMajority leaderKevin McCarthyMinority LeaderNancy PelosiMajority WhipSteve ScaliseMinority WhipSteny HoyerStanding CommitteeA permanent committee established in a legislature, usually focusing on a policy areaJoint Committeelegislative committee composed of members of both housesConference CommitteeA committee that settles Senate and House differences in bills.Select CommitteeCongressional committees appointed for a limited time and purposeMarkupRewrite of a bill after hearings have been held on it (happens in sub-committee)Lobbyistperson who tries to persuade someone to support a particular causeElectoral Collegethe body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-presidentExecutive OrderA rule issued by the president that has the force of law