APWH Chapter 12 Self Test
Terms in this set (20)
C (Pastoral societies relied on the keeping of domesticated animals on lands that were usually too arid for agriculture. Because of their way of life they were able to generate powerful and impressive civilizations with substantial populations, although they were not able to sustain population densities as high as those seen in agricultural societies.)
a. are gatherer-hunter societies.
b. live in greater population densities than traditional agricultural societies.
c. were able to construct powerful and impressive civilizations on the arid margins of agricultural land.
d. were more patriarchal than agricultural civilizations.
A (North America lacked any large animals that could be domesticated and this precluded humans settling down to a herding lifestyle.)
Pastoral societies failed to develop in North America by 1500 because
a. North America lacked large animals that could be domesticated.
b. agriculture only arrived with European settlers after 1492.
c. no suitable environment existed in which pastoral societies could thrive.
d. agricultural societies in the region fought constant wars to keep pastoral societies from forming on their borders.
B (A pastoral lifestyle required large amounts of land to support animals, which led to lower population densities than agricultural societies and thus smaller total populations.)
In comparison to agricultural societies,
a. pastoral societies produced more productive if smaller economies.
b. pastoral societies supported far smaller populations.
c. pastoral societies were egalitarian, with almost no social distinctions.
d. women in pastoral societies participated less in public life.
B (Pastoral societies actively sought the goods of their agricultural neighbors. Particularly among the nomadic peoples of inner Eurasia, this desire for the fruits of civilization periodically stimulated the creation of tribal confederations or nomadic states that could more effectively deal with powerful agricultural societies on their borders.)
Which of the following is TRUE of pastoral societies?
a. In general they lived entirely from the products of their animals.
b. Most pastoral societies actively sought food stuffs, manufactured goods, and luxury items from agricultural civilizations.
c. Pastoral societies possessed weaker armies because of their smaller populations and so could only deal with agricultural societies on terms set by farming peoples.
d. Pastoral societies rejected the universal world religions of agricultural societies, because they were too incompatible with their ways of life.
D (Clans of pastoralists were frequent rivals, were fiercely independent, and were widely dispersed. All these features gravitated against political unity.)
Constructing large empires among pastoralists was no easy task because in general
a. the conquest of agricultural societies offered little attraction to self-sufficient pastoral peoples.
b. the egalitarian social structure of pastoral nomads left no room for charismatic potential leaders to distinguish themselves.
c. pastoral societies possessed the wealth needed to construct professional armies and bureaucracies but chose not to use wealth in this manner.
d. internal rivalry between clans of pastoralists made enduring political unity difficult to achieve.
B (Under the charismatic leadership of Modun, an earlier fragmented and egalitarian pastoral society was transformed into a far more centralized and hierarchical political system in which power was concentrated in a divinely sanctioned ruler and differences between junior and senior clans became more prominent.)
The Xiongnu confederation effected a revolution in pastoral nomadic life in the third and second centuries BCE when they
a. domesticated the horse.
b. formed a far more centralized and hierarchical political system than earlier pastoral societies.
c. rejected a tribute-based relationship with China, instead returning to the self-sufficient lifestyle of their ancestors.
d. developed an early version of the steam engine.
C (Arabs, Turks, and Mongols created a series of empires that were the most expansive of the period.)
Which of the following statements about nomadic pastoral peoples in the period between 500 and 1500 CE is TRUE ?
a. Although they had a huge political impact on settled societies, no pastoral society succeeded in spreading its religious system to a settled society.
b. Only China of the major settled civilizations did not fall at least for a time under the control of a previously nomadic pastoral people.
c. Pastoral peoples created the largest and most influential empires of the period.
d. Pastoral people had a more prominent role in Africa than in Eurasia.
C (The Masai traded with both hunters and settled peoples for the products that they needed. Moreover, nomadic cattle-keeping Masai created "age-sets" and married women from settled Masai peoples.)
a. formed into large states and chiefdoms.
b. were a closed group defined by blood relationships and unwilling to admit others into their world.
c. interacted extensively with settled societies in the region even as they maintained their own identity through their pastoral lifestyle.
d. rejected the "age grades" used by settled Masai to produce bonds between boys and men from different villages and lineages.
D (For all of its size and fearsome reputation, the Mongol Empire left a surprisingly modest cultural imprint on the world that it had briefly governed.)
The most significant cultural legacy of the Mongol empire was
a. the spread through forced conversion of the traditional Mongol religion based on devotion to Tengri.
b. the spread of the Mongol language, which continues to flourish today in many places far from the Mongol homeland.
c. a new structure for pastoral states that broke with the state-building structures of their Xiongnu and Turkic predecessors.
d. none of the above.
A (The logic behind the creation of the empire is in part explained by Chinggis Khan's use of war to create a common task that would strengthen the new and fragile unity of the Mongols under his rule.)
The Mongol Empire emerged in part because of
a. Chinggis Khan's need after 1206 to keep the now unified Great Mongol Nation together.
b. the clear blueprint that Chinggis Khan possessed from early in his life to recreate the great Xiongnu Empire.
c. the large superiority in numbers enjoyed by the pastoral nomads led by Chinggis Khan when compared to the settled societies that they invaded.
d. the technological superiority in metal working that the Mongols enjoyed over settled societies.
C (Chinggis Khan drew on settled agricultural peoples for both infantry and artillery forces. Chinese troops proved particularly useful, with, for example, some 1,000 Chinese artillery crews taking part in the Mongol invasion of Persia.)
Chinggis Khan strengthened his army
a. by banning all non-Mongol pastoral peoples from serving in it.
b. by organizing his army strictly along tribal lines in an effort to diminish divisive tribal rivalries, with single clans making up units.
c. by borrowing Chinese techniques and technologies particularly for siege warfare.
d. all of the above.
A (Between 1209 and 1279 the Mongols conquered both North China, which was then ruled by a dynasty of nomadic origin, and South China, controlled by the native Song Dynasty. These two conquests brought China back together under the rule of a single Mongol dynasty known as the Yuan.)
The Mongol conquests in China
a. led to the unification of a divided China, with the north and south of the kingdom once again coming under the rule of one dynasty.
b. led to the fragmentation of China into a Mongol-dominated north and a native Song dynasty-dominated south.
c. resulted in the return of North China to pasture land for Mongol herds in the 1230s through the mass deportation of settled peoples by the Great Khan Ogodei.
d. brought an end to all Chinese administrative practices and their replacement with Persian models.
B (Mongol khans made use of traditional Confucian rituals and also supported the building of some Daoist temples, thereby accommodating Chinese expectations for how an emperor should act.)
In an effort to extract as much wealth as possible from their conquest, the Mongols sought to accommodate Chinese culture and ways of governing
a. by not taking a Chinese dynastic title, which would have offended the population.
b. by making use of traditional Confucian rituals.
c. by strongly supporting the traditional Chinese examination system and employing in their government only Chinese bureaucrats who passed the examinations.
d. by requiring all Mongols to learn Chinese.
B (The Mongols had a negative impact on Persian agriculture because they taxed the peasantry heavily, turned much agricultural land into pasture for their herds, and damaged the fragile underground irrigation system of the region.)
The Mongol conquest of Persia
a. while bloody, was less bloody than the Arab conquest of the same region centuries before.
b. was disastrous for agriculture in the region.
c. had little impact on the Mongols who settled in the region, as they rejected Islam and Muslim culture.
d. opened the region to the penetration of Buddhism.
C (The Mongols conquered but did not occupy Russia through garrisoned cities, permanently stationed administrators, or Mongol settlements, primarily because Russia had little to offer and was not worth the expense of occupying it.)
In comparison to the Mongol conquests of Persia and China, Russia experienced
a. much less devastation because Russian cities were better able to repel Mongol sieges.
b. more dramatic political change with all native Russian princes being replaced by Mongol lords.
c. a different post-conquest relationship with the Mongols because the Mongols chose not to occupy the region physically.
d. greater religious change, with the Russian Orthodox church losing influence over a large portion of the population.
D (Some Russian princes grew rich from their role as tribute collectors and the Russian Orthodox Church benefited from religious toleration and exemption from some taxation.)
The tribute system imposed by the Mongols on their Russian conquests benefited
a. the peasantry because the tribute and taxes were low.
b. some Russian princes who served as tribute collectors.
c. the Russian Orthodox Church, which was tolerated by the Mongols and received tax exemptions.
d. both b and c.
C (Mongol tolerance toward the Russian Orthodox Church and the khans' grant of some tax exemptions provided an environment in which the Church penetrated into the countryside more fully than ever before.)
The Mongol conquest of Russia
a. had its most profound impact on the Mongols themselves, who adopted Russian Orthodox Christianity and settled into an agricultural lifestyle.
b. had little impact on Russian government because the Mongols sought to dominate the region at a distance and thus did not influence Russian rulers and their practices in any meaningful way.
c. strengthened the hold of the Russian Orthodox Church in the region because it was during this period that it penetrated into rural areas more fully than before.
d. all of the above.
C (The Mongols provided a relatively secure environment for trade largely as a means of raising tax revenue.)
The Mongols consistently promoted long-distance commerce because
a. before their conquests the Mongols had been a dominant force in the Silk Road trade.
b. the Mongols had long produced valuable trade products, so promoting the trade routes promoted their industries.
c. the Mongols wanted to tax trade as another way of extracting wealth from more developed civilizations.
d. the Mongols were eager to acquire the goods of Europe.
D (Vietnam and Japan were never part of the Mongol Empire.)
Which of the following was NOT a way in which the Mongols contributed to the globalization of the Eurasian world?
a. The sometimes forced movement of skilled people around the empire, facilitating the exchange of ideas and technologies
b. The fostering of diplomacy on a Eurasian scale
c. The promotion and protection of the Eurasian trade routes
d. The integration of Vietnam and Japan into the Eurasian trade networks following their conquests by Mongol armies
C (For a time the scarcity of labor opened up new work opportunities for women.)
In the longer term, the population losses associated with the Black Plague in Western Europe resulted in
a. better relations between rich landowners and poor workers, who all had to work together to survive.
b. an increase in the practice of serfdom as a way of dealing with the scarcity of labor.
c. greater employment opportunities for women, at least for a time.
d. a lessening of interest in technological innovation because so many skilled members of society had perished.