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Language and Linguistic Exam 2 (final)
Terms in this set (357)
The language of an individual speaker with its unique characterisics is referred to as
English may have __ to __ idiolects/speakers of enlish
When there are systematic differences in the way groups speak a language, we say that each group speaks a ____ of that language.
true or false, Hindi and urdu of india are considered two seperate languages but are mutually intelligible.
Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish are ____ to each other
because of loss of contact or separation of a language via physical religious or culturally separation.
why do dialects develop.
mandarin and Cantonese are not mutually intelligible, yet are considered ___ because they are both spoken in mainland china.
true or false, a language is a collection of dialects.
Dialects vs language
If different dialects cease to be able to understand each other, then it is said to be different languages. seperate and mutually unintelligible to each other example is manderin and cantonese.
dialects show differenes in
accents (pronunciation) , lexicon (vocabulary) and syntax ( grammar)
Why do dialects develope
physical or social separation
grammars and lexicons
Dialects and languages reflect the underlying ____ of their speakers- word choices. It would be completely arbitrary to say, for example, that grammars that differ fro
language vs dialect
Because neither mutual intelligibility, nor degree of grammatical difference, nor the existence of political or social boundaries is decisive, it is not possible to precisely define the difference between a language and a dialect.
one language as mutually intelligible linguistic systems, with systematic differences among them.
We shall use the rule-of-thumb definition and refer to dialects as
movement towards greater uniformity and less variation among dialects. less distinctive, When dialects merge
Due to dialect leveling, there are fewer and fewer dialects in the world.
When various linguistic differences accumulate in a particular geographic region, the language spoken has its own character, the southern area of the US for example, each version of the language is known as __ dialect. ex r coming after vowels like in london.
Regional dialect example
r dropping of english dialect speaker, due to physical separation.
Regional phonological or phonetic pronunctiation differences distinctions are often referred to as___. deals with ONLY pronunctiation.
phonological differences in dialect
how we say or pronounce merry, marry, Mary. Accents and pronunciation. or Luxury- 48% americans say with a k sound 98% of brits say without k sound- lugxury
pronunciation that has become the standard or courtly pronunciation. for great brittain it was considered this.
True or false, accent refers to the characteristics of speech that convey information about the speaker's dialect, which may reveal in what country or in what part of the country the speaker grew up, or to which sociolinguistic group the speaker belongs.
True or false, The term accent is never used to refer to the speech of non-native speakers who have learned the language as a second language.
What is the most consistent difference between British and american?
The most consistent difference occurred in the placement of primary stress, with most Americans putting stress on the first syllable and most British on the second
examples of lexical differences around the world
Do you wheel the baby, or do you ride it or roll it? In a baby carriage, a buggy, a coach, or a cab? People take a lift to the first floor (our second floor) in England, but an elevator in the United States; they fill up with petrol (not gas) in London; in Britain a public school is 'private' (you have to pay), and if a student showed up there wearing pants ('underpants')
not dialect differences based on phonology, accent, or sound, but on lexical items, word choices, and word meanings. Ex: coke pop and soda.
define syntactic differences
sentence level differences, grammatical differences.
syntactically conditioned morphological difference.
some American English dialects, the pronoun I occurs when me would be used in other dialects. This difference is a ____
Syntactic differences/ change
Differences Dialects can also be distinguished by systematic syntactic differences. dialects can also be distinguished by systematic syntactic differences. EX: America- Jon will eat and mary will eat: Jon and mary will eat. In Ozark of southern Mississippi dialect : 2. John will eat and Mary will eat. → John will eat and Mary. In (1) the VP will eat in the first conjunct is deleted, while in (2) the second conjunct is deleted. Most english dialects only allow the first one, the second one would be seen as ungrammatical. ex: between you and I (should be you and me) or he might could, or do you want to go with?
dialect map/ dialect atlas
where dialect differences are geographically plotted.
krik] and [krɪk] for creek. The concen- trations defined by different word usages and varying pronunciations, among other linguistic differences, form ______ , A line drawn on the map to separate the areas is called an isogloss. When you cross an isogloss, you are passing from one dialect area to another.
a bundle or group of isogloss
A dividing line between two separate dialect areas based on some dialect features is known as a(n):
when you have enough lines or isoglosses then you start to have ___
Acronym for the dictionary , reference tool, of american regional english written completed via decades of research and scholarship by Cassidy 1907-2000
What is the purpose of dare
Its aim is not to prescribe how Americans should speak, or even to describe the language we use generally, the "standard" language. Instead, it seeks to document the varieties of English that are not found everywhere in the United States—those words, pronunciations, and phrases that vary from one region to another, that we learn at home rather than at school, or that are part of our oral rather than our written culture. Although American English is remarkably homogeneous, there are still many differences in dialect., these differences are recorded in DARE
Social dialects may be formed/ based 0n
They may be based on socioeconomic status, religious, ethnic, and racial differences. country of origin and even gender.
Dialect differences that seem to come about because of social factors are called
Social vs regional dialects
there are regional aspects to social dialects and, clearly, social aspects to regional dialects, so the distinction is not entirely cut and dried
This is the dialect taught in "English" or "grammar" classes in school, and it is closer to the written form of the language than many other dialects. said to be the correct dialect,
standard dialect- standard american english
the dominant or prestige dialect is often called the ___. If there is a definition of SAE we not know it, because SAE is not defined precisely (like most dialects, none of which are easy to clarify). Teachers and linguists held a conference in the 1990s that attempted to come up with a definition but failed.
deviations from the norm thought to be "proper English," such as pronouncing often with a [t], or saying between you and I, while U speakers, who are generally more secure about their dialect, say [ɔfә̃n] and between you and me. It is when people try to immitate the speech patterns of a higher social class. It often sounds unnatural.
true or false
no dialect is more complex, or more regular than any other dialect or language. They are simply different. More precisely, dialects reflect a different set of rules or lexical items represented in the minds of their speakers. Any judgments, therefore, as to the superiority or inferiority of a particular dialect or language are social judgments, which have no linguistic or scientific basis.
What is hypercorrection in dialects?
It is when people try to immitate the speech patterns of a higher social class. It often sounds unnatural.
why do language purist seek to prevent dialect differentiation or change.
purists wish to prevent language or dialect differentiation because of their false belief that some languages are better than others, or that change leads to corruption.
In the article "Italian is Beautiful..." the authors contend that "...there is a strong link between the perceived pleasantness of a language variety and the apparent intelligibility of what is said in it." What do they mean?
It shows the myth held that certain languages are more beautiful than others. For example the idea that italian and french sound elegant. Urban dialect is said to be more pleasant that rural dialects. It is also percieved that people who speak standard english are more intelligent than those in rural or southern dialects.
Italian is Beautiful and German is Ugly."
the authors note that how you speak can determine how people perceive you. In other words, if you speak "standard" English then you are "smarter" and more "professional" than if you spoke a non-standard variety. Here's the famous clip from My Fair Lady when the dialectologist says the same thing.
A dialect becomes a different language when the two different dialects can know longer communicate and understand one another. It is no longer mutually intelligible.
When do two dialects cease to be two dialects and instead become two languages? In other words, how is dialect distinguished from language?
How did officials of the US view sign language when it was once banned?
Children in schools for the deaf were often punished if they used any gestures at all. The aim of these schools was to teach deaf children to read lips and to communicate through sound. This view prevented early exposure to language. It was mistakenly thought that children, if exposed to sign, would not learn to read lips or produce sounds. Individu- als who become deaf after learning a spoken language are often able to use their knowledge to learn to read lips and continue to speak. This is, however, very difficult if one has never heard speech sounds. Furthermore, even the best lip readers can comprehend only about one-third of the sounds of spoken language.
African American English
a social dialect of North American English that has been a victim of prejudicial ignorance. This dialect, African American English (AAE),1 is spoken by a large population of Ame
African American English is much more common in ___
working class people
AAE is generally used
______ in casual and informal situations, and is much more common among working-class people. African Americans from middle- or upper-class backgrounds and with higher levels of education are now more likely to be speakers of SAE. U.S. President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama are cases in point.
why is AAE emphasized more than standard English in this chapter?
AAE is discussed here more extensively than other American dialects be- cause it provides an informative illustration of the morphological and syntac- tic regularities of a dialect of a major language, and the systematic differences from the so-called standard dialects of that language. A vast body of research shows that there are the same kinds of linguistic differences between AA
true or false, AAE is a single, monolithic dialect.
r-deletion and L-deletion
____ and __ deletion is common in AAE
true or false, African american english is genetic
consonant cluster reduction rule in AAE
simplifies consonant clusters particularlly at the ends of words and when one of the two consonants is an alveo- lar (/t/, /d/, /s/, or /z/). The application of this rule may delete the past-tense morpheme so that meant and mend are both pronounced as men, and past and passed (pass + ed) may both be pronounced like pass. When speakers of this dialect say I pass the test yesterday, they are pronouncing the past tense according to this rule of grammar
true or false, consonant cluster reduction rule is unique to AAE
Neutralization of [ɪ] and [ɛ] before Nasal Consonants
AAE shares with many regional dialects a lack of distinction between /ɪ/ and /ɛ/ before nasal consonants, producing identical pronunciations of pin and pen, bin and Ben, tin and ten, him and hem and so on. The vowel sound in these words is roughly between the [ɪ] of pit and the [ɛ] of pet.
AAE has a rule that reduces the diphthong /ɔɪ/ before /l/ to the simple vowel [ɔ] without the glide, so that boil and boy are pronounced [bɔ]. /ɔɪ/ → /ɔ/ This rule is common throughout the regional dialects of race and social class
Loss of interdental fricatives
A regular feature is the change of /θ/ to /f/ and /ð/ to /v/ at the ends of syl- lables so that Ruth is pronounced [ruf] and brother is pronounced [brʌvər]
Another regular feature found in many varieties of AAE (and non-AAE) is the substitution of a _____ for /d/ at the end of non-word-final sylla- bles; thus the name Rodman is pronounced [raɁmәñ ], but the word rod is pro- nounced [rad]. In fact, we observed in chapter 5 on phonetics that the glottal stop [Ɂ] is a common allophone of /t/ in many dialects of English.
true or false, these differences are evidence that AAE is as syntactically complex and as logical as SAE
True or false, The multiple negatives of AAE are governed by rules of syntax and are not illogical.
deletion of the verb be
SAE- he is nice AAE- he nice
deletion of the verb be in AAE shows
that syntactic reduction rules operate in both dialects although they show small systematic differences
Habitual be in AAE
the distinction is made syntactically, an uninflected form of be is used if the user is referring to a habitual state. example- SAE- he is late this time AAE- he late SAE- he is habitually late AAE- he be late
what causes the ungrammatical sentence in AAE to be formed?
ungrammatical sentences are caused by a conflict of the habitual meaning with the momentary meaning conveyed by at the moment, this time, and today.
there replacement in AAE
Some AAE dialects replace SAE there with it's in positive sentences, and don't or ain't in negative sentences. It's a fly messing with me. "There's a fly messing with me." Ain't no one going to help you. Don't no one going to help you. "There's no one going to help you."
___ is acquired as a first language by many children, making it the native language of hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of Americans. It is not English with a Spanish accent but, like African American English, a mutually intelligible dialect that differs systematically from SAE. Many of the differences, however, depend on the social context of the speaker. (This is also true of AAE and most "minority" dialects.) Linguistic differences of this sort that vary with the social situation of the speaker are termed sociolinguistic variables. For
Many Chicano speakers (and speakers of AAE) are_____ ; they can use either ChE (or AAE) or SAE, depending on the social situatio
Phonologicial differences of CHE
For example, as discussed in chapters 5 and 6, English has eleven vowel phonemes (not counting the diphthongs): /i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ, u, ʊ, o, ɔ, a, ʌ/. Spanish, however, has only five: /i, e, u, o, a/. Chicano speakers whose native language is spanish may substitute the spanish vowel system for the english
CHE and consonants
The affricate /ʧ/ and the fricative /ʃ/ are interchanged, so that shook is pronounced as if spelled with a ch and check as if spelled with an sh. Also, some consonants are devoiced; for example, /z/ is pronounced [s] in words like easy [isi] and guy
Which language has more vowel phonemes? English or Spanish
CHE final word consonant cluster reduction
War and ward are both pro- nounced like war; star and start like star. it is actually no longer dialect specific
syntactic variables in CHE
regular syntactic differences between ChE and SAE. In Spanish, a negative sentence uses a negative morpheme before the verb even if another negative appears; thus negative concord (the multiple negatives mentioned earlier) is a regular rule of ChE syntax: SAE I don't have any money. I don't want anything. ChE I don have no money. I no want nothin.
Lexical differences in CHE
the use of borrow in ChE for lend in SAE (Borrow me a pencil), or barely in ChE for just in SAE (The new Prius had barely come out when I bought one), as well as many other often subtle differenc
when it comes to genderlect, why do woman use hedges and other devices?
to show politeness and solidarity and sharing of values with their listener
The differences in genderlect have more to do with what?
lexical choices and conversation style than grammatical rules
referential and informative
When men talk, it is more __ and ___.
Women are more __ and __ when speaking in a public setting
Who uses more hedges in speech according to the research?
those who are in the position of some kind of power gets to determine what is standard. standard prison talk, standard eticate, or even standard academic leaders.
true or false, there is only one group that gets to decide what is standard.
deciding what is standard is a(n) (concious/unconcious) decision made by those in power.
____ is based on what we considered standard english.
Ebonics contraversy in Oakland
officials recognized this dialect AAE and desired to validating this home dialect, those who opposed thought this dialect was improper and ignorant
prescriptivist VS descriptivist
the debate about what gets excepted grammatically, phonologically, and lexically. Prescriptivist want to say this is the standard, set the standard. Descriptivist says this is a description of the dialect without any evaluation of it. Simlpy describe, not determining what is standard or not.
true or false, the bottom line is that society decides unconsciously what is acceptable and what is not. Natural evolution to those in power.
band local languages in many areas in a way of controlling population.
true or false, those who grow up in AAE environment cannot obtain/learn SAE.
characteristics common to AAE
1- r-deletion ( prestigious in england but stigmatized in the US).
2- constant cluster simplification
3- pen and pin neutralization before nasal consonant
4- loss of interdental fricatives / brother being bronounced brova
5- deletion of be ( I am here vs I here)
6- habitual be - jon is nice AAE- jon be nice
[ ʃ ]
Again, to be clear, which sound(s) are not in Spanish (and thus this influences "Latino English?"
fact or myth, No one is saying that AAE structure should be considered SAE, just that its linguistic integrity stands apart from its social assessment
list the differences in women and men in dialect
1- woman speak less in power setting and hedge speech more
2- teachers call on boys more
3- woman speak more standard english than men
phonological traits of spanish
1- five vowels (sh becomes ch)
2- interdental fricative th is a makes a d sound
3- e before s cluster phonological impossibility to start a word with an S.
4- double negatives b/c they are acceptable
5- code switching
William Labov's study
Wanted to see the % of r dropping. More stigmatized and not standard english. Went into different stores, and asked different people where are the socks and he found that the higher socioeconomic level, sacs, or the more money you have, you use more r's and use more standard english. Due to solidarity?
switching dialects from english to spanish, even in the same sentence. can switch in professional situation.
R dropping occurs by the British in southern England. It illustrates dialect difference because it shows how dialects of the English language has changed overtime. For example, the r-less dialect is still spoken today in New York, Boston, and Savannah.
Explain how / r / dropping illustrates a dialect difference. Where does / r / dropping occur?
ethnic and gender differences
What did Labov take into consideration when completing his study?
In sac's high end store at least ___ % of the constituents pronounced the R at least some of the time. In Macy's, the less expensive store, it was ___, and in Klein's the lower end retail it was ___.
notion of standardness
those in a position of some sort of power sets the standard or thoe who look up to them assume that this is standards. ex: standard academic english it is high school teachers, those who broadcast and or grade papers are looked to of having the standard.
his methodology and his discovery that dialects can be defined on a quantitative basis of rule applications vs strict presence/absence of rule
What makes Lablov's work so distinctive?
social context and sociolinguistic variables
According to Lablov what plays an important role in language change?
languages are chosen naturally or via government
true or false, Lingua Franca could be any language.
A common link language. diverse language in which people use social or commercial communication to reach a common agreement. Usually a language with a broad base of native speakers or trade purposes.
when a dialect speaker uses a (ah) before the ing: I'm going a'hunting or a'fishing. the man makes money abuilding houses. Sam was afollowing trail. etc
you can use A-prefixing only with ___. sailing is not a verb but a noun. You also cannot have a preposition in front of it. Lastly, it has to have the primary stress of the first syllable.
____ has been termed the Lingua Franca of the whole world
when two groups do not share a common language and must communicate when put together. Often in history, however, speakers of mutually unintelligible languages have been brought into contact under specific socioeconomic and political conditions and have developed a language to communicate with one another that is not native to anyone. Such a language is called a ____.
rudimentary and made up
pidgin is not a native language like lingua franca, it is ___.
during the roman empire, __ was the lingua franca
___ is the lingua franca of the jewish faith
the dominant language or what the pidgin will be mostly influenced by. it is generally the case that one linguistic group is in a more powerful position, economically or oth- erwise, such as the relationship of plantation owner to worker or slave owner to slave. Most of the lexical items of the pidgin come from the language of the dominant group. This language is called the _______ language. For example, English (the language of the plantation owners) is the superstate for Hawaiian pidgin english
___ was known as the lingua franca of diplomacy by historical circumstance
naturally or by government
A language is chosen via
The other language lesser dominant. or languages also contribute to the lexicon and grammar, but in a less obvious way. These are called _____ languages. Japanese, Chinese, Tagalog, and Portuguese were the substrate languages of Hawaiian Pidgin English and all contributed to its grammar.
pidgin grammar rules
few prepositions, auxilary verbs, replications
In this early stage, the pidgin has few clear grammatical rules and few (usually specialized) words. Later, however, if the language continues to exist and be necessary, a much more regular and complex form of pidgin evolves—what is sometimes called a ___. more complex and more of a full language.
true or false creole does not have all of the grammatical complexities of an ordinary language.
What is creole
A __ is a language that has evolved in a contact situation to become the native language of a generation of speakers ( the next generation not the generation that made it up).
the creation of pidgin. involving simplification of languages and reduction of the number of domains used.
______ in contrast, involves the linguistic expansion in the lexicon and grammar of existing pidgins, and an increase in the contexts of use. Although pidgins are in some sense rudimentary, they are not devoid
SAE VS Pidgin vowel sounds
Standard English has fourteen distinct vowel sounds, pidgins commonly have only five to seven, and each phoneme may have many allophonic pronunciations. In one English- based pidgin, for example, [s], [ʃ], and [ʧ] are all possible pronunciations of the phoneme /s/; [masin], [maʃin], and [maʧin] all mean 'machine.' Sounds that occur in both the superstrate and substrate languages will generally be maintained, but if a sound occurs in the superstrate but not in the substrates, it will tend to be eliminated. For example, the English sounds [ð] and [θ] as in this and thing are quite uncommon across languages and often are pronounced dis and tings
Pidgin vs Creole
pidgins, creoles may have inflectional morphology for tense, plurality, and so on. For example
when people travel and come into contact on a bigger scale.
style or register
the different level of formality. When you speak with your grandmother, or boss your register changes.
jargon and argot
specialized vocabulary of professions- doctors lawyers, and specific professions. Synanomous- same meaning. If you do not use certain terms, that means you are outside of that group or clique.
every language has words that are forbidden. If it is a second language, taboo usually do not have much power
when you use a word in place of a taboo word to soften it up. replace taboo words
not yet a real word, can use it in the streets but not formal setting. Mob, dwindle, freshmen are real words today but started off as slang. slang is short-lived generally. Most lang simply goes away- groovy
men talk more than women and it begins in __. this is true in business and educational settings.
private/intimate settings ____ speak more and have more supportive and facilitated speach.
what are the stages of english
Old English (449-1100 CE), Middle English (1100-1500), and Modern English (1500-present). This division is some- what arbitrary, being marked by important dates
marked and unmarked form in language use
marked form- not normal unmarked is more normal. Male forms are more normal- everyone must pay his taxes on time. (unmarked is his). How english applies gender to language. Doctors-unmarked and female doctor- marked.
In one of my lectures, I discuss sign language in Nicaragua. Please explain how this demonstrates pidginization and creolization.
When two groups do not share a common language and come into contact they begin to learn how to communicate with this put together language just enough to understand each other. It is a rudimentary language in order to communicate with another person, there are no native speakers. In Nicaragua, the government opened up schools for the deaf and there slowly became a very simple sign language to communicate- pidgin sign language. No one taught them, the began to make this on their own. The next generation watched and expanded on this rudimentary sign language and made a creole. This illustrates how the creolization takes place- the children took a pidgin and made it a creole language.
In the section in the Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams book on contact, the authors mention Nicaraguan Sign Language. Why do they use this example?
This examples illustrates how pidgins become more complex (in regard to internal grammatical structure) as these are acquired by the next generation. This results in creolization, or the creation of a language in place of a pidgin, which is not a fully developed language.
The branch of linguistics that deals with how language changes, what kind of changes, and why is
historical and comparative linguistics. It is "historical" because it deals with the history of particular languages; it is "comparative" because it deals with relations among languages
what happened with the Deaf children in Nicaragua as it relates to pidgeon and creole?
For the first time, the government opened up schools for the deaf. They all used different signs. Slowly, they made a pidgin sign language used by the children of the school. The next generation of children came and watched this pidgin sign language and made it more complex, expanded, regularized, and creolized this pideon sign language and is still currently in place today. Illustrates that 1- language is not oral but cognitive and 2- how the creolization takes place.
changes to a language are changes in the ___.
grammars and the lexicon of people who speak the language and are perpetuated as new generations of children acquire the altered grammars and perhaps make further changes to be passed on to their children.
true or false, All parts of the grammar are subject to change over the course of time—the phonological, morphological, syntactic, and se- mantic components may be affected.
regularity of sound change (concept in language change)
Southern US represents a major dialect area of American English. For example, words pronounced with the diphthong [aɪ] in non-Southern English will usually be pronounced with the monophthong [aː] in the South. But May be limited to an area geographically Example of [ h I t ]
regular sound correspondents
when [aɪ] occurs in a word in non-southern dialects, [aː] occurs in the southern dialects, and this is true with all such words.
In _____ a mouse [maʊs] was called a mūs [muːs], and this mūs may have lived in someone's hūs [huːs], as house was pronounced at that time. In general, ____ speakers pronounced [uː] where we now pronounce [aʊ]. This is a regular correspondence like the one between [aɪ] and [aː]. Thus out [aʊt] was pronounced [uːt], south [saʊθ] was pronounced [suːθ], and so
the regular sound correspondences we observe are the result of ____.
phonological changes that effect certain sounds, or classes of sounds, rather than indicidual words.
centuries ago English went through a phonological change called a ___ in which [uː] became [aʊ]. Phonological changes can also account for dialect or regional differences.
regional dialect differences may arise via
when innovative changes occur everywhere but in a particular region. The regional dialect may be conservative relative to other dialects. The pronunciation of it as hit, found in the Appalachian region of the United States, was standard in old
is an ancestral language from which related languages have developed. not actually attested languages. but are hypothesized to explain the relationships amongst current languages.
true or false, he velar fricative /x/ is no longer part of the phonemic inventory of most Modern English dialects.
allophone of a phoneme may, through sound change, become a separate ___, thus adding to the phonemic inventory
old enlish lacked a ____ phoneme
English also had a long consonant phoneme ____that contrasted with /f/ between vowels.
Neither /ʧ/ nor /ʃ/ were phonemes of Latin, but /ʧ/ is a phoneme of modern Italian and /ʃ/ a phoneme of ___.
change in phonology
In American Sign Language many signs that were originally formed at the waist or chest level are now produced at a higher level near the neck or upper chest, this is a demonstration of
change in the lexicon
an interaction of phonological rules may result in changes in
final voiced consonants.
the verbs house [haʊz] and bathe [beð] were now represented in the mental lexicon with _____
unstressed vowel deletion rule , intervocalic- voicing rule
Eventually, both the _____and the_____ were lost from the grammar of English. The set of phonological rules can change both by addition and by loss of rules. Changes in phonological rules can, and often do, result in dialect differences
the great vowel shift
between 1400 and 1600 a major change occured in english that resulted in new phonemic representations of words and morphemes. This phonemic restructuring is known as ___.
diagramming the Great Vowel Shift on a vowel chart (Figure 8.1), we can see that the high vowels [iː] and [uː] became the diphthongs [aɪ] and [aʊ], while the long vowels underwent an increase in ___ as if to fill in the space vacated by the high vowels. In addition, [aː] was fronted to become [e:]
before the great vowel shift, the vowels of the words listed ___.
—pleasant; serene—serenity; sane—sanity; crime—criminal; sign—signal; and so on. Before the Great Vowel Shift, the vowels in each pair were pronounced the same.
Middle English Vowel Shortening
Then the vowels in the second word of each pair-
—pleasant; serene—serenity; sane—sanity; crime—
were shortened by the Early ________ rule.
false, As a result, the Great Vowel Shift, which occurred later and applied only to long vowels
true or false, the great vowel shift occurred only to short vowels
many spelling inconsistencies in english because our spelling system still reflects the way words were pronounced before it occured.
The great vowel shift is the primary source of ___.
true or false, in general, the written language is more conservative- slower to change than spoken language
list of cases
Lithuanians and russians retain much of the ____ case system
English retaines traces of the __ case
nouns they modify
In Modern English, adjectives generally precede the
What syntactic change has occurred
Thus the rules of syntax that govern these word orders, even taking "poetic license" into account appear to have change. n rendering of the second line. Thus the rules of syntax that govern these word orders, even taking "poetic license" into account. It is safe to say that syntactic change in English and other languages is most evident in the changes of permitted word orders
why did the rich system of case endings of old enlgish become simplified ?
because of phonological changes, and in part because syntactic changes were underway, speakers of English were forced to rely more heavily on word order to convey the function of noun phrases. A sentence such as sē (the nominative) man þone (the accusative) kyning (king) sloh (slew)
As a result Modern English has a basic SVO word order whereas Old English has a ___word order.
changes in the lexicon
among which are changes in the lexical categories of words (i.e., their "parts of speech"), addition of new words, the "borrowing" of words from other languages, the loss of words, the shift in the meanings of words over time, and even the faux back formations (see chapter 2) that create new bound morphemes such as -tini noted above (and yes, your authors are still working their way through the list)
through addition of new words
one of the most obvious ways a language changes is
derivational, back formation, and compounding
new words are formed via
words coined from popular names
___ are similar to compounds in that they are produced by coombining two words, but in __ parts of the words are deleted.
the abbreviation of longer words into shorter ones by leaving out one or more syllables such as fax for facsimile, the British word telly for television, flu for influenza, porn for pornography, and droid for android
that the clipped word has the same meaning as its source
or refrigerator). There are two possible semantic outcomes of clipping. The most common by far is
day both a noun and a verb with all the rel
by becoming broader, narrower, or by shifting.
We have seen that a language may gain or lose lexical items. Additionally, the meaning or semantic representation may change
When an expression is borrowed and then translated into the borrowing language, such as worldview from German Weltanschauung, it is called a ____. perros calientes is a loan translation for hot dogs
native and loan words
The lexicons of most languages can be divided into ____ and l___.
one's whose history or etymology can be traced back to the earliest known stages of the language
indirect borrowing of a word
Direct borrowing of a word
means that the borrowed item is a native word in the language from which it is borrowed. For example, feast was borrowed directly from French, along with a host of terms, as a result of the Norman Conquest. By contrast, the word algebra was borrowed from Spanish, which in turn had been borrowed from arabic
Of the 20,000 or so words in common use, about ____are borrowed. But of the 500 most frequently used words, only two-sevenths are borrowed, and because these words are used repeatedly in sentences—they are mostly function word
/v/ and /ʒ/
English in effect borrowed the phonemes ____ and ___from French. The bound morpheme suffixes ible/able were also borrowed from French, arriving in English by hitchhiking on French words such as incredible but soon attached itself to native words such as drinkable
special acronyms such as NFL or WHO
why do languages change?
no one knows exactly. social context or external influence can encourage the use or adoption of a new grammatical rule. A basic cause of change is the way children acquire the language. No one teaches a child the rules of the grammar. Each child constructs the grammar of her language alone, generalizing rules. language contact, assimilation and analogic change, and the past tense and plural tense rules.
____ is a generalization of rules that reduces the number of exceptional or irregular morphemes. It was by analogy to plow/plows and vow/ vows that speakers started saying cows instead of earlier plural kine. It was by analogy to plow/plows and vow/ vows that speakers started saying cows as the plural of cow instead of the ear- lier plural kine. In effect, the plural rule became more general. The generalization of the plural rule continues today wit
___ Languages that evolve from a common source are ____ languages were once dialects of the same language.
Linguists use the _____ to identify regular sound correspondences among the cognates of related languages and systematically reconstructs an earlier protolanguage.
peer backwards in time and determine the linguistic history of a language family which may be represrented in a tree diagram.
This comparative reconstruction allows linguists to
____ uses the same methods applied to different stages of the same language. Where available, written texts are also used to inform linguists about language change.
What is the traditional date associated with the beginning of English?
All parts of language can change
phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, lexical
example of a phonology language change
[nIxt] (used to have a velar fricative) and dude
example of a morphological language change
loss of endings cost from costed or vice versa. prepositions and word order became more important
in Modern English. English retains some of the case system in pronouns
he/him/his or she/her/her.
If over time the past tense of "cost" became "costed," then this is an example of what kind of language change over time?
example of a syntax language change
do you want to go with?
ability to callibrate or anticipate what speaker is saying. Makes it easier to adjust for the slight difference in communication
example of a semantic language change
awful and anxious
example of a lexical language change
cows and kine
date for history of English
449-1100 old English
1100-1500 middle English
1500 to present is modern English
year of 1066
battle of hastings, french conquered and a influx of french words that found its way into english
what happened in year 449
germanic tribes came from europe into the modern day united kingdom
regularity of sound change
sound changes like [aI] in southern american english go throughout system- all [aI] become [a:], but may be limited to an area geographically. older example is [hIt] which is it being pronounce with an H at the front once upon a time.
Indo European Languages
French, Greek, Russian, Spanish, English. Italic, Germanic, Slavic, Hellenic
who is William Jones?
He postulated that there was a source of many of the world's languages. This was knows as Indo-European
loss of case endings
preposition and word order became more important in modern English
retains some case system in pronouns such as he him his or her her she.
why does the belief that there is a Shakespearean dialect have some validity?
it's romanticism and political usefulness
According to the essay "Women Talk Too Much," who speaks more in professional settings?
From a linguistics perspective, jargon and argot are synonymous.
In the chapter on Language Change and the History of English, the authors note that [ aI ] and [ a: ] are distinctive features of the phonology of two parts of the U.S. Where is [a:] more proniment?
Ancestral protolanguages is a language from which related languages have developed. not actually attested languages. but are hypothesized to explain the relationships amongst current languages. One clue that linguist go off of while hypothesizing such a phenomenon is the large number of sound correspondence
Our readings discuss that German, English, and Romance languages have a common origin or "proto-language." But we have no recordings or written records of this proto-language, so how can linguists hypothesize that such a language existed and thus these languages are genetically related?
A canadian french speaking child may not do well on a french test due to the difference in dialect. This relates to the topic of AAE because slight differences
In the reading from the Language Myths, Walt Wolfram explains that a Canadian French-speaking child might not do as well on a French test based on Parisian French. What does he mean? And how does this relate to the topic of AAE?
If different dialects cease to be able to understand each other, then it is said to be different languages. seperate and mutually unintelligible to each other example is manderin and cantonese.
What is the linguistics rule of thumb regarding when two dialects are considered (or should be considered) two languages? Give some examples.
Some living languages do not change because those societies have language academies. For example, France has the French Academy and Spain has the Royal Academy, so France and Spain will not undergo any changes in their languages.
the British Englishes uses biscuit for what an American would call a cracker
Which of these is considered a lexical difference between two dialects?
It is said that boys talk more in the classroom than girls and often teachers call on boys more often than they do girls. men talk more than women and it begins in kindergarten. this is true in business, professional, and educational settings.
Discuss the question of who talks more in the classroom, boys or girls, in light of the reading for this learning module.
How many free morphemes are in the word actively?
What is accent?
Mandarin and Cantonese
Which of these are separate languages from a linguistic perspective?
According to most linguists, animals (i.e. non-humans) are capable of language.
[ t ]
Which one is not a fricative?
/ t / is
a voiceless alveolar stop
What do you call the morphemes put at the beginning of words (or roots)?
Which is not a possible word in English?
what are all the possible words in English that seem incorrect
Which is a more open class? Put more simply, which category in a dictionary increases faster?
According to "Some Languages Have No Grammar," which language has the most noun and verb endings?
The opposite of a contradiction ("Circles are square") is a _____.
"found" requires a direct object
Why is the sentence,
The nurse found ungrammatical?
11 or 12 depending on the dialect
How many vowels sound are in English?
[k a ʊ ]
Which is the best transcription for "cow"?
[ i ]
Which is a higher vowel?
[ g ]
Which of these is a velar consonant?
The following segments [ s ] [ ð ] [ θ ] [ f ] and [ v ] are all
voiced velar nasal
Which is the best description for [ ŋ ]?
A natural group of words or parts of a sentence is known as a
A morpheme is never a word.
The study of semantics is the study of
The sentence, "Nina bathed her dogs" ________ that Nina's dogs got wet.
The study of the rules that allow for words to be combined to form coherent and grammatical sentences is
Idioms must be stored like words (i.e. as a whole unit) in the brain. The principle of compositionality does not apply.
[dʒ] is a stop
Which is an inaccurate statement?
[dʒ] is a stop
[aɪ] is a diphthong in English
English has three velar consonants.
English has two interdental consonants.
[ ð ] is voiced
theories of bilinguilism
unitary hypothesis- only one sytem
both b and c
Where is the / r / often eliminated when is occurs after vowels. An example would be farm, farther, and father being pronounced with no / r / in these words.
both b and c
[ s o f ə ]
Which is the best transcription for "sofa"?
[ a ]
All the following sounds share the same place of articulation except one. Which one has a different
place of articulation?
[ b ]
[ a ]
[ m ]
[ w ]
In Winifred Bauer's essay "Some Language Have No Grammar," the point is made that some languages like English have far less grammar than classicial languages like Latin or even Hopi.
Two words with different meanings that are identical except for one sound segment that occurs in the same place in each word.
What is a minimal pair?
The words "time" and "dame" are minimal pairs in English.
The sounds [ t ] and [ tʰ ] are phonemic in English.
definite and indefinite articles
What is a determiner?
How many morphemes are there in the word desirability?
Identify the kind of prefix in unhappy.
If the sentence has a prepositional phrase
Which of these is not a way to test for a constituent?
If the sentence has a prepositional phrase
Move as a unit
How many F's do you count in the statement below?
FINISHED FILE ARE THE
RESULTS OF YEAR OF SCIENTIFIC
STUDY COMBINED WITH THE
EXPERIENCE OF YEARS?
ways to tell what kind of a noun you have (a subject, a direct object, possessive, etc.)
Case endings are
This kind of grammar indicates which kind of grammar (language forms) we should use in formal settings such as school or business.
(Jack and Jill) (ran up) (the bill)
Look at the sentence:
Jack and Jill ran up the bill..
Which is the best grouping of this sentence by constituents?
(Jack and Jill) (ran) (up the bill)
(Jack) (and) (Jill) (ran up) (the) (bill)
(Jack and Jill ran) (up the bill)
(Jack and Jill) (ran up) (the bill)
the [ k ] preceding it is a voiceless sound
The / d / becomes [ t ] in "kicked" because
-ish (as in boyish)
Which is a bound morpheme in English?
[ z ]
Which ending would we put to make this word plural: cab
The relationship between form and meaning in language is, for the most part, arbitrary.
[ f ]
Which of these is a labiodental?
[ f ]
[ ʔ ]
[ θ ]
[ s ]
[ æ ]
[ ʔ ]
Which of these is a symbol for the glottal stop?
a person's language determines their thinking
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis says that...
Which is greater in number in English?
In Spanish, there is a rule that says, if you have a conjugated verb and a pronoun, put the pronoun in front of the verb. So, you have sentences like, "Te lo di" (Exact translation: "to him it I gave"). Everybody does it this way. Young speakers just "pick up" this rule by listening to those around them. According to chapter one, this rule would be:
What word is this [ s t r aɪ k ] ?
manner of articulation (stop for a fricative)
In regular rapid speech, sometimes English speakers may make two adjacent sounds more similar. This, as we've seen, is a phonological rule called assimilation. For example, the plural of book adds the allophone of [ s ] because the final segment is unvoiced [ k ]. Now consider this. Sometimes to ease difficult pronunciations and to allow one to speak quickly, a phonological rule called dissimilation occurs. This happens when one phoneme become less similar (in at least one feature) from an adjacent phoneme. Here's an example. In rapid speech, the word sixth (as in "You are the sixth person in line") might be pronounced as [ s ɪ k s t ] instead of [ s ɪ k s θ ]. The feature being changed is...
The presence of two or more possible meanings within a single sentence of words. An example is: For sale: an antique desk suitable for lady with thick legs and large drawers
Define and give two examples of a structurally ambiguous sentence in English.
The slants are a group that use their Asian background of having slanted eyes as a trade mark instead of a stigma or racial slur. It is not similar to offensive language, they argue, because it is what makes them unique. The issue is that if someone else referred to a person as a slant, it would indeed be a racist remark.
Discuss the issue of protecting free speech vs. the government's responsibility to curb offensive language in light of the rock band The Slants.
According to "Some Languages Have No Grammar," could Spelitzian exist if it had no grammar?
Is the ambiguity in the following sentence due to semantic or structural ambiguity?
This shot will make you smart.
Is the ambiguity in the following advertisement due to semantic or structural ambiguity?
For sale: an antique desk suitable for lady with thick legs and large drawers.
The voiced velar nasal [ ŋ ] is a fairly typical sound at the beginning of words in English.
Which language has more INFLECTIONAL endings?
The same sounds may occur in another word and not represent a separate morpheme at all, as in finger. Conversely, the two morphemes -er and -ster have the same meaning, but different forms. Both singer and songster mean 'one who sings.' And like -er, -ster is not a morpheme. e in monster because a monster is not something that "mons" or someone that "is mon" the way youngster is someone who is young. All of this follows from the concept of the morpheme as a sound plus a meaning unit.
What's the differerence in the -er in words like finger and butter and the -er in words like painter and singer?
Pragmatics deals with language and how it is used in contexts.
example is Jack swims entails that jack swims beautifully.
Define entailment and give an example.
In phonetics, linguists say that a distinction between consonants and vowels is that consonants have more restriction of the air flow in the vocal tract than vowels.
In English, there is a one letter to one sound correspondence in our English writing system. In other words, the current English alphabet used in writing allows one symbol and only one symbol for each and every sound in English.
It is not possible to segment the sound of someone clearing their throat into descrete units because throat clearing is one continuous sound and because such sounds are not speech. People can segment words such as keepout because they know the language.
The authors make a point in Chapter 5 that we do not segment the sound of someone clearing his/her throat, but we do divide sounds in words into segments. Explain why. What's the difference?
There are more languages in the world than there are speech sounds in all those languages.
The rule for past tense formation of regular verbs are similar to the rule for plural formation of regular verbs. Insert an e before the past tensemorpheme if regulare verb ends in a non-nasal alveolar stop. Secondly, channge tohed morpheme to a voiceless t when a voicless sounds proceeds it.
In English, the past tense can be formed by adding [ - d ], [ - t ], or [ -ə d] to the end of a word. For example, killed, bleached, and raided. From the reading, explain a bit about why we have three different ending sounds to make a past tense. In other words, what's the phonological rule?
Universal Grammar seems to give constraints to the rules that babies and toddlers will develop.
define universal grammar
universal grammar is the "blue print" as they acquire the rules of their language or languages.
Universal Grammar seems to give constraints to the rules that babies and toddlers will develop.
true. All the research shows that children learn how to make plurals of nouns before they learn how to embed clauses (like "The man who is coming to dinner is bringing dessert.")
Toddlers who are learning the same language seem to acquire the same rules in the same order (though some toddlers acquire them faster).
example of constraints and poverty of input
the boy is sleeping- the child listens to those around him and figure out to move auxillary verb -is- to the front.
poverty of input or stimulus
the idea that we need some input to form the rules of our language. however babies cannot possibly hear enough input to get all the possible rules. so there must be a blueprint to help, the blueprint is the universal grammar.
What do you think (and based on the reading)? Toddlers who are learning the same language seem to acquire the same rules in the same order (though some toddlers acquire them faster).
Children learn automatically how to form questions
They knlow to move auxillary verb to front from the main clause, they will not take the is from is sleeping and move to beginning. Do not have enough instances to memorize this rule but somehow listen to enough adults to form question correctly
bilinguals have this awareness from an early age that there are different sytems for communicating. Cognitive benefit are minimal but bilinguals have significant advantage of problem solving.
adults get stuck along the way of learning a second language, do not 100% get fluent. use language in spontanueous speach is difficult.
age, positive perception of L2 (second language is cool! vs learning a language due to force) learning environment, personality factors (tolerance for ambiguity, self-esteem), those who are easily frustrated do not learn as easily.
what are factors that help/hurt learn a language
critical period for L2 learning a language
interference form an L1
yes, Interference from an L1 - Japanese speaker learning English would have a lot of problems with phonemic pronunciation. L and R are not phonemic.
natural order for learning 1st language
3- be forms
5- third person/ s
Are some languages harder than others?
no, it is impossible to say that any one language is harder than another. It depends on where and where you are going
most difficult aspect of learning new language
vocabulary, second is the grammar.
false. children get innate grammars based one the input they recieve from people around them.
true or false, languages are learned via immatation?
Adults correct children when they make grammatical mistakes
false, just like children and first language acquisition, when adults are learning a second language, there is no great need to correct everything. Sure, adults are capable of handling more correction, but this doesn't mean second language teachers should correct everything. Two reasons: first this can frustrate even higly motivated adult and second, adults (like children) will eventually pick up the grammar through study and exposure.
true or false, second language learners should be corrected as soon as they are wrong in order to prevent the formation of bad language habits.
Really smart people are great at learning "book grammar." But they are often worse at really communicating because they expect so much of themselves. Those students who are able to relax are more more capable of "real" language growth.
true or false people with high IQs are good language learners.
A group of words that "go together" like s noun phrase or a verb phrase.
What's a linguistic constituent?
Genie could develop language normally after the critical period
We only use top down or bottom up when we process language. We do not use both.
idea that we can process certain phonemes because we have experience with them. Aware of the different categories and are able to assign these signs to allophones.
Process very quckly and immediate.
A poetic sentence
The following sentence is an example of what?
The faithful people our church every sunday.
Based on chapter 10 (language processing and the human brain), it is fairly obvious that language is not located in different modules in the brain. In other words, there are not seperate area for different aspects of language such as lexicon, grammar, and other aspects of language.
Where is language located in the brain of most adults?
the ability to distinguish where one word ends and the next begins. 90% of English words have stress on the initial syllable. We also search for new words when someone speaks to us by semantic priming: if someone is speaking to us about basketball, then we are primed to start hearing words about basketball.
chapter 10 (language processing and the human brain) discusses segmentation. to what does this refer?
Genie, the girl mentioned in our text who missed the critical period, could not
a [d] that occurs before the vowel [i] is somewhat acoustically different from a [d] that occurs before the vowel [u]. Even within a single speaker the physical properties of the "same" sound vary from utterance to utterance depending on the phonological context and even the state of health of the speaker.
The text noted that the [ d ] in these short syllables [di ][ da ] and [ du ] are all a bit different. Why would that be?
a form of aphasia in which the patient has word-finding difficulties.
Which best describes anomia?
It is a myth that the people in Appalachia speak similar to Shakespeare. The dialect is simultaneously mocked and revered. The article discusses various individuals who give anecdotal evidence ( like a president of Barea University who cites "hit" for "it") that Appalachia has preserved that golden age of English. However there is no real linguistic evidence. Any modern dialect has evidence of Shakespearean dialect. Appalachia does not have any more than New york or California.
Is it true that people in Appalachia speak similar to Shakespeare than people in California? explain with some examples from the reading.
Words can also be activated by hearing semantically related words. This effect is known as ______. A listener will be faster at making a lexi- cal decision on the word doctor if he has just heard nurse than if he heard a semantically unrelated word such as flower.
____, which is the neurological term for any language disorder that results from acquired brain damage caused by disease or trauma.
lesions in the part of the left hemisphere called Broca's area causes
the listener relies on higher-level semantic, syntac- tic, and contextual information to analyze the acoustic signal. For example upon hearing the determiner the, the speaker expects a noun or adjective to be more likely than a verb or preposition. In this instance the listener's knowl- edge of phrase structure would be the source of information.
The critical-age hypothesis
asserts that language is biologically based and that the ability to learn a native language develops within a fixed period, from birth to middle childhood.
spite the lack of invariance problem, listeners are usually able to understand what they hear because our speech perception mechanisms are designed to overcome the variability and lack of discreteness in the speech signal. Experimental results show that listeners calibrate their perceptions to control for speaker differences, and can quickly adapt to foreign-accented or distorted speech. What is even more remarkable is that only a few dozen features, such as voicing and bilabial, are needed to describe every speech sound that occurs in every human language.
Humans can know where one word ends and the next starts. Equally remarkable, and somewhat problematic to explain is that humans "... manage to recognize particular speech sounds when they are spoken by different people and when they occur in different contexts." Why is this also remarkable?
This deals with how we understand sentences and phrases.
deals with how sentences ( like garden path sentences) can be interpreted. Humans have the ability to do this very quickly.
Ever wonder why sometimes when you start to speak the wrong word comes out? What is fascinating that sometimes we receive the wrong word and the wrong word is related semanticallytext annotation indicator. Other times the "wrong" word is related phonological but not semantically. EX you mean to say pen but oyu say pencil
Successful language comprehension requires that a lot of operations take place at once, ___, which include segmenting the continuous speech into phonemes, morphemes, words, and phrases.
language of the brain
grey matter- higher level cognitive functions are here including language
garden path sentence
Sentences that induce backtracking. When readers encounter the phrase the doctor they immediately perceive it as the direct object of the verb visit When they later come to the verb pre- scribed, they must "change their minds" or backtrack, and reanalyze doctor as the main clause instead.
Tissue that connects two hemispheres of the brain. Language id in left brain.
Lateralize sounds to the left side.
window or time where we have enough elasticity to learn our language rather switftly. Assumes language is biologically based. After critical period over, she could not fully achieve grammar skills. never learned syntax (grammar) just words.
Effects lexical items, can be perfectly grammatical.
third person -S-
non native speakers have hard time b/c/ this structure never formed for them.
The reading on language processing and the human brain notes that sometimes we "cheat" a little bit when we listen to speech. For example, if a speaker says "the," then the hearer gets ready for a noun. This anticipating the type of word coming next based on knowledge of grammar is known as
When certain brain functions become localized in one specific area of the brain.
he study of how language is stored and processed in the brain
his is when a patient loses language skills due to a brain injury or a brain illness.
he brain is divided into two
Many English words are spelled with a final -e but it is not pronounced. Examples include "house" and "bathe." Why is the -e written but it is not pronounced?
his is the opposite of function (or grammar words like articles). These _______ words have more meaning.
The surface area of the brain
true or false, All living languages change, change is imperceptible
examples of phonological change
[ n I x t ] and "dude"
examples of morphological change
- loss of endings and "costed"
examples of syntactical change
- Do you want to go with?
example of semantic change
awful and anxious
example of lexical change
cows and kine
example of latin based ancient languages
Spanish French Portuguese Romanian
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