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198 terms

Mod F Chapter 2

STUDY
PLAY
cartilage
elastic substance attaching to the end of some bones
hematopoiesis
process of blood cell formation
joint
place where two bones come together
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
hormone that helps to maintain the proper level of calcium in the body
skeletal system
bony framework of the body
stem cells
cells in the blood from which all other cells are formed
Achilles tendon
tendon that connects the gastrocnemium muscle to the heel bone
collagen
hard protein substance formed when calcium and other minerals mix with osteoblasts and fibers to provide strength to tissues.
medullary cavity
central cavity of a bone
osteoblast
bone-building cells
osteoclast
bone-reabsorbing cells
osteocyte
mature bone cells made of organic and inorganic material, providing hardness to bone; maintains bone matrix.
epiphyseal plate (growth plate)
area at each end of a long bone responsible for bone growth; bone tissue replaces cartilage tissue, and the bone lengthens.
ossification
formation of a bone
bone marrow
organic material made of connective tissue and blood vessels that fills the cavities of bones; two types are red marrow, responsible for the manufacture of red and white blood cells, and yellow marrow, composed of fat cells and responsible for white blood cell production
bone matrix
fluids and collagen that make up bone tissue
compact bone
hard surface of all bone
elastic cartilage
yellow cartilage constructed of elastic fibers
fibrous cartilage
thick cartilage that connects bones to each other; found in invertebral disks.
foramen
hole of opening for passage of nerves, blood vessels, and ligaments
haversian system
structural unit of bone that receives nutrition and removes wastes
hyaline cartilage
translucent cartilage that covers the ends of bones; also found in locations such as the nasal septum and costal area
lamellae
thin layers of ground bone tissue arranged in patterns that determine bone type
sinus
air-filled cavity in a bone that reduces the weight of the bone
cancellous bone
spongy, porous bone that contains red bone marrow; has lattice-like formation
diaphysis
main shaft of long bones
epiphysis
expanded ends of long bones; growth line for long bones in children and young adults
long bones
bones found in upper extremities and lower arms and legs, determines height
metaphysis
growth center in children that lies between the epiphysis and diaphysis
periosteum
outer covering of bone that provides support of blood vessels that nourish the bone and provides attachment of muscles, tendons and ligaments
flat bones
thin, flattened bone found in the skull, ribs and scapula
irregular bones
bones having no distinct shape that make up the spinal column, sphenoid, and ethmoid of the skull, sacrum, coccyx, and the mandible
short bones
cube-shaped bones that appear in wrists and ankles
axial skeleton
bones in the central section of the body; skeleton of head, vertebrae, and bony thorax
cranium
skull, fusion of 8 cranial bones with 14 facial bones that protects the brain
hyoid bone
bone located in the neck that anchors the tongue
trunk
body, exept for the head and extremities
articulate
join together, as with bones, by means of a joint
auditory meatus
opening of the ear in the temporal bone
ethmoid bone
bone located behind the nose and eye sockets
fontanels
soft spots located between the cranial bones
foramen magnum
large opening at the base of the skull where spinal cord joins the brain
foramina
small openings in the cranial bones for nerves and vessels
frontal bone
bones that extends from the top of the eye orbits to the top of the head, forming the forehead
frontal sinuses
air-filled cavities located in the area above the eye orbits
maxillary sinus
air-filled cavity within the maxilla
occipital bone
bone that forms the back part of the cranial floor and covers the back part of the brain
paranasal sinuses
air-filled spaces within the skull
parietal bones
two bones that give shape to the top of the skill and extend to the sides
pituitary gland
'master gland' of the endocrine system
sella turcica
bone projection in the sphenoid bone that holds the pituitary gland
sphenoid bone
middle portion of the cranial floor that holds the cranial bones in place
sutures
immovable joints found in the head
temporal bone
bone located at the side of the skull
hard palate
roof of the mouth
lacrimal bones
bones that are part of the eye orbits situated alongside the nose
mandible
lower jawbone
maxilla
upper jawbone
nasal bone
bones that form the bridge of the nose
nasal conchae
facial bones above the roof of the mouth and walls of the nasal cavities
palatine bones
facial bones behind the hard palate that help to form the walls of the nasal cavity and the floor of the eye orbits
vomer
bone that forms the lower wall between the nostrils, nasal septum
zygomatic bones
cheekbones
atlas
first vertebra in the neck, supports the head
axis
second vertebra in the neck; serves as a pivot when the head turns from side to side
cervical vertebrae
first seven vertebrae located in the neck, C1-C7
coccyx
tailbone, below the sacrum
lumbar vertebrae
five vertebrae in the lower portion of the back, L1-L5
sacrum
five vertebrae after the lumbar vertebrae the fuse into one, S1-S5, located between the hipbones
spinous process
projection extending from the vertebral bone to serve as an attachment for the ribs
thoracic vertebrae
twelve vertebrae located in the chest area, T1-T12
thorax
chest area
vertebra
one of a series of bones that protect the spinal cord
vertebral column
flexible, curved, segmented structure composed of vertebrae that are stacked on one another
body
middle portion of the sternum or breastbone
costal cartilage
cartilage that attaches the first seven pairs of ribs to the sternum
false ribs
ribs that are indirectly connected to the sternum and are attached to the vertebrae
floating ribs
ribs attached to the vertebrae only and not the sternum
manubrium
upper portion of the sternum
ribs
flat bones that protect the lungs and heart; 12 pairs articulate to the thoracic vertebrae
sternum
breastbone
true ribs
ribs that attach directly to the sternum
xiphoid process
lower tip of the sternum
appendicular skeleton
bones in the upper and lower limbs and the girdles that attach these to the axial skeleton
acromion process
place where the ridge of the scapula and the clavicle join, the point of the shoulder
clavicle
collarbone
pectoral girdle
shoulder; attaches the arms to the axial skeleton
process
projection on or outgrowth of a bone
scapulae
shoulder blades
humerus
long bone of the upper arm
olecranon process
extension of the ulna that forms the elbow
radius
bone of the lower arm located on the thumb (medial) side
ulna
bone of the lower arm located on the (lateral) side (little finger)
carpals
eight small bones of the wrist
wrist
area between the lower arm and the hand
metacarpals
bones the form the hand
phalanges
bone that form the fingers (or toes)
acetabulum
socket where the femer joins the pelvic girdle
erect
upright
ilium
upper portion of the pelvic bones
ischium
lowest portion of the pelvic bones
pelvic girdle
bones that connect the leg to the axial skeleton
pubis
area that joins the hipbones together aneriorly
condyles
rounded projections at the end of a bone that form a joint
femur
thighbone; long bone of the upper leg
head
rounded or necklike portion of a long bone
patella
kneecap
trochanter
bony prominence of the femur that provides a place for muscle attachment
fibula
bone of the lower leg, lateral side
tibia
bone of the lower leg; shinbone
calcaneus
heel bone
cuboid
large bone of the ankle, a tarsal
cuneiforms
tarsal bones of the ankle
navicular
tarsal bone of the ankle
talus
tarsal bone of the ankle
tarsals
seven bones that form the hind part of the foot; ankle bones
longitudinal arch
skeletal structure that supports body weight and stretches from the heel bone to the phalanges (toes) formed by tarsals and metatarsals
metatarsals
long bones of the foot
transverse arch
skeletal structure that supports body weight and extends from one side of the foot to the other side; formed by tarsals and metatarsals
articulation
point where bones are joined together; joint
amphiarthrosis
form of articulation (joint) with slight movement; connected by cartilage
articular cartilage
thin layer of cartilage that covers the surface of bones at the point where they come together
ball-and-socket joint
one bone with a ball-shaped head fits into a socket of a second bone
bursa
fibrous connective tissue filled with synovial fluid
condyloid joint
oval-shaped bone the fits into a concave bone
diarthrosis
joint with free movement; a hinged or pivot joint
gliding joint
joint that allows flat surfaces to move across each other
hinge joint
joint that only moves in one direction
ligament
tough fibrous band of fibers that connect bones to bones or support internal organs
pivot joint
joint that allows for rotation
saddle joint
joint shaped like a saddle that fits into a concave-convex socket
synarthrosis
joint with no movement; such as sutures of the head
synovial cavity
joint cavity filled with fluid
synovial fluid
fluid that reduces friction caused by joint movement
tendon
connective tissue that connects muscles to bones
abduction
motion that occurs when an extremity is moved away from the body
adduction
motion the occurs when an extremity is moved toward the body
circumduction
combination of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction; circular motion by a joint
eversion
turning outward
extension
motion that increases the angle between articulating bones
flexion
bending motion that brings two close bones together decreasing the angle between articulating bones
inversion
turning inward
pronation
turning downward
rotation
motion that occurs when one bone moves or turns on its own axis
supination
turning upward
orthopedic
pertaining to the treatment of bones and joints
ostealgia
pain within the bone
osteitis
inflammation of the bone
osteonecrosis
death of bone tissue
arthrography
x-ray of a joint
arthoscopy
visual examination of a joint with an arthroscope
bone density testing (BDT)
noninvasive test that determines the density of a bone
bone scanning
use of nuclear medicine to detect pathologies of bone
computed tomography (CT)
imaging technology that records transverse planes of the body
myelogram
x-ray of spinal canal after an injection of contrast medium
radiography
imaging technique using x-rays or gamma rays to make a film record (radiograph, x-ray) of internal structures based on changes in tissue density, especially the skeletal system's soft tissue
rheumatoid factor test
test to detect the presence of rheumatoid factor (RF) in the blood; a test for rheumatoid arthritis
serum calcium (Ca)
laboratory test to measure the amount of calcium in the blood.
closed reduction
repairing (reducing) a fracture when the skin has not been surgically opened.
comminuted fracture
bone that has splintered or broken into many pieces
compound fracture
fracture in which bone protrudes through the skin
dislocation
displacement of a joint from its proper anatomical position
fracture
bone break
greenstick fracture
cone fractured and bent on one side, but not on the other. children are prone to this type of break because their bones have no completely ossified
impacted fractured
bone break in which one end of a fractured bone is driven into itself
open reduction
repairing (reducing) a fracture when the skin has been surgically opened
reduction
returning a bone to its original position
simple fracture
bone break in which bone does not break through the skin
sprain
injury in which ligaments around a joint are torn or reptured
strain
stretching of muscles and tendons
subluxation
partial dislocation of a joint
debrided
removed dead tissue
osteomyelitis
infection of the bone marrow and bone
tuberculosis
infectious pulmonary disease that can affect other areas
osteomalacia
bone disease of adults characterized by a deficiency of calcium and vitamin D and the softening of bones
rickets
bone disease caused by a lack of vitamin D in children
kyphosis
curvature in the thorasic area of the spine
lordosis
severe inward curvature in the lumbar area, swayback
osteoporosis
condition caused by more bone cells being destroyed than made; decrease in bone density leaves the bones porous and prone to fracture
Paget disease
slow, progressive disease of bone tissue with excessive and abnormal resorption and formation of bone.
scoliosis
lateral curvature of the spine
carcinoma
cancerous or malignant tumor
metastasized
cancer that has spread from its original (primary) site to a new (secondary) site
osteoma
benign bone tumor that develops in the membrane of the skull
sarcoma
malignant bone tumor of the bone marrow and cartilage cells
ankylosis
bones fused together
arthritis
inflammation of one or more joints; usually accompanied by pain, swelling, redness, and stiffness
bursitis
acute inflammation of the bursae
carpal tunnel syndrome
compression of the median nerve in the wrist causing pain and loss of movement
crepitation
joints rubbing against each other making a grating sound
ergonomic
pertaining to the study and analysis of human work devices that affect the anatomy
gouty arthritis (gout)
condition with swelling of joints resulting from uric acid not being metabolized.
osteoarthritis
condition resulting from cartilage on the end of bones softening and the bones rubbing against each other; deterioration of the joints
palliative
to be made comforable
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
chronic joint disease that affects the connective tissue and joints
tophus
chalky deposit (calculus) containing sodium urate that develops in fibrous tissue
spina bifida
condition in which the spinal column in the lumbar and sacral areas does not close completely at birth
talipes
foot deformity of one or both feet; clubfoot