human geo Chapter 5 - Language
Terms in this set (53)
a regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
-form of language spoken in a local area
a language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used
the system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or a concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English
-what the Chinese language is written in
a boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
a language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family
a collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that the branches derived from the same family
a system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning
a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
a collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
a language that is written as well as spoken
the language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
a form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages
the form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications
the name given to a portion of Earth's surface
a group of languages that share a common origin but have since evolved into individual languages
a group of languages that share a common ancestor before recorded history
the second largest language family
(Indo-European is the first largest)
when languages are shown as leaves on trees, the trunks represent
Germanic invaders of England included the
Angles, Jutes, and Saxons
-did not include the Normans
the first speakers of the language that evolved into English were tribes living in
English is part of which language group?
English is part of which language branch?
English is part of which language family?
Icelandic has changed less than any other Germanic language because
it was isolated
which is not a Romance language?
- all Romance languages descended from Latin
- the four most important are: Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian
the language spoken by Roman soldiers stationed throughout Europe
-aka common Latin
a creole language
is a mix of indigenous and colonial languages
Walloons and Flemings
live in Belgium
-speak languages belonging to different branches
official languages in Switzerland include
German, French, Italian, Romansh
-does not include Flemish
most important language of Pakistan
Russia is part of which language branch?
recent evidence points to the first speakers of Indo-European language as being
Basque is spoken primarily in
the Pyrenees Mountains (northern Spain, southwestern France)
is the language spoken by the greatest number of people in the world
Hebrew is an example of
a revived language
the second most widely spoken language family in Europe
the most important language family in Sub-Saharan Africa
immigrants to which colonies had the most diverse backgrounds?
the use of English in the French language
the world's most important language branches:
Northwest - Germanic
Southwest - Romance
Eastern - Baltic-Slavic
what is the official language in northern Belgium?
Flemish / Dutch
what is the official language in southern Belgium?
what is the most important language family in South America?
what is the most important language branch in South America?
what are the most important individual languages in South America?
Spanish and Portuguese
two groups: Brittanic and Gaulish
languages in the Brittanic group
Cornish (Cornwall - southwest England)
Breton (Bretagne - northwest France)
languages in the Gaulish group
Scottish Gaelic (Scotland)
Irish Gaelic (Ireland)
Max (Isle of Man - between Scotland and Ireland)
historically, Celtic languages have been threatened by
invasions by the Romans, Vikings, Normans, Saxons, Jutes, and Angles who forced their own languages on those already there
today, Celtic languages are threatened by
English, which is the language of commerce
-further from cities (on the edges of the countries) is most where Celtic languages are spoken
people are attempting to preserve Celtic languages through
isolation of the language
people are attempting to promote Celtic languages by
teaching it in schools, using it on road signs, and broadcasting sports games in it