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Sociology Test 4

Chapters 9, 10, 11
While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.
What is the commonly-used definition of Chicano?
an American from Mexico
What is the term used to describe an attitude that exaggerates the virtues of a group, such as all Asian Americans being brilliant or all African Americans being great athletes?
positive prejudice
What is a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group?
Which state did NOT pass the amendment to its state constitution that made it illegal for public institutions of any kind to consider race or sex in college admissions, hiring decisions, or awarding of contracts?
The split labor market and reserve labor force are most aligned with the symbolic interactionist perspective.
________ refers to seeing certain features of a situation while ignoring others, and the use of labels to group individual members as if they were all alike.
Selective perception
Discrimination can occur without the awareness of both those doing the discriminating and those being discriminated against.
Sociologists find psychological explanations of prejudice to be inadequate.
Based on the most recent research, why are race and ethnicity often factors in medical decisions that favor treatment for white patients?
Researchers do not know for sure why race and ethnicity are factors in medical decisions.
To which ethnic heritage do more Caucasians in America trace their roots than any other?
John recently received his semester grades and found that he had failed two courses. He says the reason he failed the two courses is that they were taught by female professors. John believes that women are really not smart enough to teach at the college level. In this example, the female professors are most likely ________.
scapegoats and being blamed for John's grades
The sociologist who argued that social class has become the most significant factor in determining life chances of African Americans in today's U.S. society was ________.
William Julius Wilson
Under czarist Russia, daily living conditions for Jews were made so intolerable that millions chose to leave Russia and migrate to other countries. This is an example of ________.
Indirect Population Transfer
What did Proposition 209, a 1996 amendment to the California state constitution, address?
prohibit state government institutions from considering race, sex, or ethnicity, specifically in the areas of public employment, public contracting or public education.
What is the commonly-used definition of Chicano?
an American from Mexico
What is the philosophy that biology is not destiny, especially with regard to justifying gender stratification?
In Pakistan, Jordan, and Kurdistan, a woman who has brought disgrace to her family is killed by a male relative, usually her brother or husband. This practice is called ________.
honor killing
The 1985 Vietnam veterans study clearly demonstrated that biology (in this case, testosterone) is the cause of male aggressiveness.
What term refers to the maximum length of life that is possible for a species?
life span
Which statement is LEAST accurate regarding sex and gender?
The terms "sex" and "gender" are sociologically and biologically interchangeable.
In 1890, women made up about ________ of the U.S. labor force. Today, they represent almost ________.
20; 50
Which wave of feminism was characterized by broad goals ranging from an increase in women's pay to an antiviolence campaign?
the second wave
What sociological perspective stresses that age has no inherent meaning and that each culture shapes the way that its citizens perceive the elderly?
symbolic interactionism
Which sociological perspective is MOST closely aligned with the explanation that Social Security benefits came about as the result of a struggle between competing interest groups?
the conflict perspective