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chapter 5 practice test
Terms in this set (50)
DNA is now often used as evidence in criminal trials. It is particularly useful because it can be found in:
All of the above are correct
d. dead skin cells
In any DNA molecule, the number of guanine bases is:
always equal to the number of cytosine bases.
The complementary base pairs in a DNA molecule are stabilized by:
Which of the following is always the same in every unit of the DNA molecule?
Only a) and c) are always the same.
a. the sugar
b. the base
The Russian-American biochemist Phoebus Levene was the first to determine that nucleotides may contain one of
four different nitrogen-containing bases. Levene believed that the nitrogen-containing bases occurred in equal
amounts in DNA. What is the actual proportion of these bases?
DNA contains equal amounts of adenine and thymine, and equal amounts of guanine and
The double helix model of DNA suggested by Watson and Crick was exciting to the scientific community because:
it explained how genetic material could be duplicated by means of the complementary
Most genes come in alternative forms called:
Alternate versions of a gene can code for different _____________ of the same character
DNA is a macromolecule that stores information. Which component of DNA is the source of this information?
The human genome is composed of approximately how many base pairs?
The highest percentage of non-coding DNA is found in:
eukaryotes, with the exception of yeasts
A "pseudogene" is best defined as:
a DNA sequence that arose from a duplication of a functional gene, but which itself is not
The central dogma of molecular biology states that:
DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is translated into protein.
The expression of a gene to form a polypeptide occurs in two major steps. What are these two steps in their correct
. transcription and then translation
From DNA to protein involves which series of events?
Which of the following correctly describes the locations of transcription and translation within an eukaryotic cell?
DNA is transcribed in the nucleus, and then the mRNA transcript is transported to the
cytosol to be translated into protein
One of the four nucleotide bases in DNA is replaced by a different base in RNA. Which base is it and what is it
thymine, replaced by uracil
. A given section of DNA with the sequence AATGGCTAT is transcribed. What is the corresponding sequence on
the mRNA transcription?
Which of the following is the primary site of protein assembly within eukaryotic cells?
The process of using the information encoded in mRNA molecules to assemble polypeptides from amino acids is
The three nonsense codons that do not code for any amino acid—UAA, UAG, and UGA—are also known as:
During eukaryotic translation, mRNA carries genetic information from the ________ to the ________, where
amino acids are assembled into proteins.
In order for translation to occur:
there must be large numbers of free amino acids present in the cytosol.
Which of the following molecules is NOT DIRECTLY involved in translation?
In the regulation of gene expression, anything that increases the binding of RNA polymerase to a gene's promoter
region could be called:
positive transcriptional control
A frameshift mutation:
results from an insertion or deletion in a DNA sequence
. A mutation that involves the addition, subtraction, or substitution of a single base is known as
a point mutation.
can be affected by environmental factors
In Tay-Sachs disease, individuals inherit genes with a mutation that causes an inability to produce
a lipid-digesting enzyme
Most genetic diseases result from mutations that cause a gene to produce a non-functioning ______________,
which in turn blocks the functioning of a metabolic pathway.
Bacteria use restriction enzymes to:
destroy foreign DNA.
could help the 250,000 children each year who are at risk of blindness due to vitamin A
What is "golden rice"?
. Rice that has had genes from other organisms added to it. These genes produce
Tomato plants that have pest-resistance genes inserted into the genome can be called:
All of the above are correct.
a. cloned organisms.
b. genetically engineered organisms.
c. transgenic organisms
The "green revolution" refers to:
the global intensification of agricultural production.
Bt corn is a genetically engineered plant. What feature gives it value as a crop plant?
The plant produces a toxin designed to kill corn borers.
Using traditional cross-breeding techniques, scientists have been able to create featherless chickens. Which of the
following has NOT been shown to be a problem with featherless chickens?
Featherless chickens have trouble digesting corn.
One of the possible concerns about genetically modified foods is that they might kill organisms that we don't want
to kill. Which of the following is an example of this phenomenon?
The pollen from plants containing insect-killing Bt genes can be blown onto other plants.
Insects that we don't want to kill, such as monarch butterflies, may be killed by such
Transgenic bacteria are bacteria:
that have a sequence of DNA from another organism inserted into them.
The combination of DNA from two or more sources is called:
Human growth hormone is produced by the ______ and erythropoietin is produced by the ______.
pituitary gland; red blood cells
Recombinant human _________ is the chemical at the center of the "blood doping" scandals in professional
Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body cannot produce __________, a chemical that allows cells to take
up and break down sugar from the blood.
Gene therapy involves:
introducing non-defective genes into the cells of an individual with a genetic disorder.
The technique in which a non-functioning gene is replaced by a functioning gene in somatic cells is called:
. gene therapy
The first gene therapy experiments were undertaken in an attempt to cure otherwise fatal genetic diseases in
children. What type of incurable genetic disease was the first gene therapy trial attempting to cure?
The incidence of Tay-Sachs disease has been reduced by 75% since the introduction of genetic screening in 1969.
Which of the following is NOT an important component of this reduction in incidence of Tay-Sachs disease?
the fact that Tay-Sachs is caused by a dominant allele
. The technology where transplanting the nucleus from a donor cell into an egg that has had its nucleus removed and
then allowing this egg to develop into an embryo and ultimately a baby animal is known as:
One of the most well-known examples of successful cloning is:
Dolly the sheep
Approximately how many genes are estimated to exist in the human genome?
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