Art History A Units 3-4
Terms in this set (60)
What were the primary subjects in prehistoric cave paintings and why?
animals, because of their dependence on them for food
Describe the Paleolithic period and name the locations and countries where cave paintings from this period were found.
"Old Stone Age" - vivid lifelike pictures of animals painted on the rough ceilings and walls of caves, paintings in Lascaux
How did prehistoric artists give their cave paintings a three-dimensional look?
Artists scratched the outline of the animal on stone and filled in the lines with black or dark brown pigment. Then, the animals were filled in with different shades of reddish-brown hue
Which area of the caves were the prehistoric painting found? What does their location indicate?
At the mouths of caves, suggesting they lived there to take advantage of daylight and ventilation
What is a megalith?
large monuments created from huge stone slabs
Give an example of post-and-lintel construction.
What was a ziggurat and what shape was its form?
a stepped mountain made of brick-covered earth, created to span the space between earth and heaven
What writing instrument was used by Sumerians for cuneiform? What made cuneiform writing very durable?
a stylus, and because they were baked
For what accomplishment is Hammurabi famous?
The code he published to unify legal practices in his empire
Where was the Ishtar Gate erected and what was its purpose?
Babylon, it marked a procession route. It is an example of the Neo-Babylonian period.
Describe how the fertile soil of the Nile River valley changed the way people obtained food in ancient Egypt. What caused them to settle in one place?
They were able to use the soil to produce food and settled because you can't move crops
What did an Egyptian civilization develop along the banks of the Nile? How long did it continue to exist?
kingdoms, existing for 3,000 years
What are the three major historical periods of ancient Egypt? What is a dynasty?
Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom/Empire. A dynasty is a period in which single family provides a succession of rulers
For whom and why were the pyramids built?
for the pharaohs to be buried
During which kingdoms was the Great Sphinx created? What is its size and what does it depict?
The Old Kingdom, 6.5 ft, and the head of a pharaoh
Why were sculptures of the pharaohs created?
as symbols of eternal strength and power befitting a king and a god
How are the portraits of Akhenaton different from the portraits of earlier pharaohs?
it depicted him realistically rather than religiously
Describe the rules that Egyptian artists were required to follow when painting or sculpting a figure
The require every part of the body to be shown from the most familiar point of view (profile), but the eyes facing front
What is the purpose of a false door painted on the wall of an Egyptian tomb?
Only the priest's ka/spirit was expected to pass through the door
Name and describe two factors that contributed to keeping Greek city-states from uniting to form a nation/
1) Divided by mountains, valleys, and the sea
2) Social barriers- local pride and jealousy
What three familiar features of Greek architecture were used in the construction of the Parthenon?
post-and-lintel construction, sloping/gabled roof, colonnade (long sequence of columns)
Define the term frieze.
a decorative band running across the upper part of a wall
Name and describe the three orders of decorative column styles for the ancient Greeks.
1) Doric order: simple heavy column without base, and topped with a broad, plain capital
2) Ionic Order: columns with an elaborate bade an capital carved into double scrolls
3) Corinthian Order: the capital is elongated and decorated with leaves
What are the characteristics of early Greek sculptured called the Kouroi and Korai?
they are symmetrically balanced
What happened to Greek artists with each new generation?
Which aspect of Myron's Discus Thrower are realistic? Which is idealistic?
it is life sized and realistic looking, but he has a calm face when he is about to throw something with all of his strength
What famous artist depicted the Parthenon frieze? What does the frieze depict?
Alan LeQuire, Athena
What is contrapposto?
a pose in which weight of body is balanced on one leg while the other is free and relaxed
Briefly describe the Hellenistic period. Explain how it originated, ended, and describe its artists.
Originated when Philip (338 B.C.) defeated and united Greece. Alexander the Great spread culture. Sculptors were extremely skilled and confident, and lack of precise balance and harmony of classical sculptures. It ended when Greece fell under Roman control.
From whom did the Romans copy much of their art and why? How did the Romans' sculptures differ?
The Greeks, because they were generally admired by the Romans. Roman sculptures were realistic rather than idealistic. They were also meant for private needs instead of public monuments.
What purpose did Romans want their portraits, sculptures, and paintings serve?
They wanted their sculptures to remind viewers of specific individuals.
What did wealthy Romans use to decorate the walls of their homes? What was the subject of these decorations?
murals, the subject being landscapes
How did the Romans use columns differently from Greeks in temple construction?
They used columns for decorative rather than for structural purposes
What was an aqueduct? What was the main purpose of their design?
a system that carried water from mountain streams into cities by using gravitational flow
Describe a Roman bath. Why were these structures so popular and what modern structures do they resemble?
Baths were vast, enclosed structures that contained libraries, lecture rooms, gymnasiums, shops, restaurants, and pleasant walkways. They were popular because they were social and cultural centers, as well as a place for hygiene. The resembled shopping malls
What was the Colosseum, and what kinds of events were held there?
a large arena or amphitheater for sporting events, such as armed contests
What are coffers? What two purposes do the coffers in the dome of the Pantheon serve?
indented panels that reduced the weight of the dome
What is a basilica?
a functional building made to hold large numbers of people
Describe the structure of a Roman basilica.
a spacious rectangular building, inside there are rows of slender columns dividing the space into "rave"
What was the purpose of a Roman basilica?
court of law and public meeting hall, public forum or public square. They were models for generations of Christian church builders
What were triumphal arches an how were they used?
heavily decorated arches, passed under after an important victory
What three modern nations trace their cultural origins to the early Indian civilizations?
India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh
Name three technologies/craft materials used by the Harappans of the Indus Valley Civilization.
bronze, copper, and fired bricks
What are Buddhist monasteries called? How is the exterior of the Lomas Rishi Cave decorated?
Viharas, and the exterior is carved
What is a Buddhist stupa? Why are they important in the Buddhist religion?
a small round burial shrine erected over a grave site to hold relics of Buddha. It offered opportunities for the faithful to engage in private meditation
What is the primary purpose of Hindu temples?
to server as a residence for the god Vishnu
How did Chinese artists use meditation?
it enables them to recognize the beauty of a leaf, tree, rock, or mountain
What was considered the primary interest of Chinese paintings by the ninth century? What activity did Chinese artists value?
nature and landscapes, they copied paintings f earlier artists
What is a scroll painting and how is it used?
scroll painting is painting on a scroll, read like a book (viewer unrolls scroll slowly to reveal story)
Name the element of art that was a chief measure of excellence in Chinese painting and how it was successfully used.
The quality of the brush line. A delicate use of line is combined with subtle value gradations to give the animal realistic appearance
What is porcelain? During which period was its production carried to new heights?
a fine grained, high quality form of China. The Sung period
During which period did the Chinese artist attempt to restore the glories of the past?
the Ming Dynasty
Explain ho the Buddhist religion reached Japan.
In A.D. 552, the ruler of a kingdom in Korea sent a gilt bronze figure of the Buddha to the emperor of Japan, with Buddhist writings and missionaries
What are Japanese temples called and what do they look like? From what material was it made and why?
Pagodas, and they were richly decorated and more delicately assembled. Made from wood because there is no hard stone in Japan
What period of Japanese art was considered the golden age and why?
The Helen Period, because numerous new temples and monasteries were built. In addition, members of the royal court and great families commissioned painters to create works of art
What was Yamato-e?
painting in the Japanese manner
What was the appeal of Zen Buddhism? How did its popularity affect the way viewers saw art?
The fact that it offered people an escape from the chaos that marked daily life
What led to the development of the Ukiyo-e style of art? What does the term "Ukiyo-e" mean?
It means pictures of the passing world. Developed because the middle class demanded art that showed the life of the peopled rendered in new techniques
What prompted the development of woodblock printing in Japan? When and from where did this technique arrive in Japan?
Developed because there was a great demand for art, and painting produced only one picture at a time. Introduced from China in the eighth century
Who was the great, yet humble painter in Japanese art?