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Chap. 22 Review

STUDY
PLAY
The largest passageway of the bronchial tree that lack cartilage are called....
bronchioles
The dept of inspiration is governed by the firing frequency of neurons in a nucleus of the medulla oblongata called the______________
inspiratory center (or DRG)
The ability of the lungs to inflate easily, called pulmonary _________, is reduced in certain fibrotic diseases of the lungs.
compliance
Peripheral chemoreceptors of respiration are located in the _______________.
aortic or carotid body
The _____ disorders of respiration do not affect vital capacity but do reduce the FEV1.0 and maximum voluntary ventilation.
obstructive
The apneustic center of the pons is only hypothetical. T/F?
TRUE
The expiratory center of the medulla oblongata normally controls each expiration. T/F?
FALSE
We do not need to know the residual volume of the lungs to determine the vital capacity. T/F?
TRUE
Which term can be described as the percent of the vital capacity that can be exhaled in a given time such as 1 second?
FEV 1.0
Which term can be described as an obstructive pulmonary disorder?
emphysema
Which term can be described as the collapse of part or all of a lung?
atelectasis
Which term can be described as the final defense against inhaled debris?
alveolar macrophages
Which term describes the maximum amount of air that can be inhaled and exhaled in one breath?
vital capacity
All parts of the respiratory tract that do not participate in gas exchange with the blood are known as the __________.
conducting zone
Correctly trace the route of air flow in the respiratory tract?
pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchiole.
The posterior limit of the nasal cavity is/are
the choanae
The _________ consist of mucous membranes supported by the turbinate bones.
conchae
The primary purpose of the erectile tissues of the respiratory tract is to allow?
each nasal fossa to be periodically rehumidified
The lower respiratory tract begins at
the trachea
The largest of the following cartilages:
- the thyroid cart.
- the corniculate cart.
- the arytenoid cart.
- the epiglottic cart.
- the cricoid cart.
the thyroid cartilage
Pulmonary suffectant is produced by
type II alveolar cells
The difference between the amount of air you normally inhale with each breath and the amount you can inhale with maximum effort is
the inspiratory reserve volume
In spinometric measurements, the difference between a volume and a capacity is...
a capacity is determined by adding two or more respiratory volume
Gasping, labored breathing or "craving for air" is called
dyspnea
The _______ pressure is the gas pressure between the parietal and visceral pleurae minus the gas pressure in the alveoli.
transpulmonary pressure
Not a cause of atelectasis...
emphysema
_____ protects the lungs from damage by over- inflation
the inflation reflex
Expiration is normally a passive process resulting from the ______ of the thoracic cage.
elasticity.
The hilum of the lung is on the
mediastinal surface
Which of the following is most important in keeping food out of the trachea?
vocal folds
Which is not a paranasal sinus?
-sphenoid
-cricoid
-ethmoid
-maxillary
-frontal
Cricoid
Vibrissae are
nasal guard hairs
The smallest passageways in the lung to have ciliated epithelia are?
terminal bronchioles
The Valsalva maneuver
increases pressure in the abdominal cavity
In keeping with ___________, the warming of air as it is inhaled is one factor that inflates the lungs.
Charles' law
Transpulmonary pressure is greater than zero during expiration and in...
pneumothorax
The glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves carry signals from the peripheral chemoreceptors to
the medulla oblongata
The dilated chamber inside the ala nasi of the external protruding nose is called the _________ and is lined by ________ epithelium. The ala nasi can be seen below.
vestibule; stratified squamous
The narrow air passages which cause turbulence are called ___________ and are lined by _______.
meatuses; ciliated psuedostratified columnar
The __________ houses the pharyngeal tonsils and receives the auditory tubes, while the _______ houses the palatine and lingual tonsils.
nasopharynx; oropharynx
The vocal cords are anchored in the _______ cartilage and are controlled by movement of ___ catrilage(s).
thyroid; arytenoid and corniculate
Inhaled foreign objects tend to lodge more in the right bronchus because it ___________
is wider and more vertical than the left.
Particles stuck in mucus and moved out of the bronchioles, bronchi, and trachea to the _____ by _____.
Pharynx; movement
The left lung has _____ lobs and the right lung has _____ lobes to make room for the heart.
2; 3; heart
The bronchioles have walls with _________ that are contracted by stimulation of the _________ nervous system.
Smooth muscle; parasympathetic
Most of the wall of an alveolous consists of _________. Cells that wander the lumens of the alveoli and surrounding connective tissue are called _______.
squamous (type I) alveolar cells; alveolar macrophages
Your resting ventilation rate is about ___ mL per minute
6000
When you inhale, your lungs expand easily because they have _________.
high compliance
Surface tension at the surface of the water and air in alveoli resists inspiration. To decrease this surface tension, the great (type II) alveolar cells release...
surfactant
If your chest expands, you would predict the intrapulmonary pressure to ______ because of ______ law.
decrease; Boyle's law
The amount of air that can be exhaled with maximum effort after maximum inspiration is called ______, and the amount of air left that cannot be exhaled is called ___________.
vital capacity; residual volume
The carbon dioxide formed bubbles in the soda because the parietal pressure of carbon dioxide in the air above the soda ________, which is explained by _________ law.
increased; Henry's
To help expel abdominopelvic contents during urination, defecation, or childbirth, we often take a deep breath, hold it, and then contract the abdominal muscles. This is called the _____.
Valsalva maneuver
The inspiratory and expiratory centers are located in the ___, while the apneustic and pneumotaxic centers are located in the _______.
medulla oblongata; pons
You are at the computer doing quiet, normal breathing, or eupenea. The nuclei responsible for the eupenea is the...
ventral respiratory group. (VRG)