Greek, Etruscan & Roman Art

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Krater
an ancient Greek wide-mouthed bowl for mixing wine and water
Kouros
statue of male youth ca. 600 BC, marble
Classical Orders
There are three distinct orders in Ancient Greek architecture: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. These three were adopted by the Romans, who modified their capitals.
Frieze
any scupltured or painted band in a building
Geometric period
Ancient Greece ca. 900-700 BCE.
It is distinguished by a reliance on geometric shapes to create human and animal figures as well as abstract décor.
Archaic Period
Ancient Greece ca. 650 - 480 BCE.
It denote the period of artistic development, art became less rigidly stylized and more naturalistic.
Hellenistic Period
Ancient Greece ca. 323 -
31 BCE.
it is defined by more active than classical forms, exciting and typically featured more movement and stronger emotion, and portrayed a wider range of personalities, moods and scenes.
necropolis
'city of the dead' a large burial area or cemetary
cycladic figures
once-painted marble figures created in the cyclades (islands off of greece) revered for their modern simplicity. Were buried with the dead.
Sarcophagus
Outer Stone Coffin
Orientalizing
Influence from the East - Emphasis on Animals
Calf Bearer
Muscular statue showing activity/normal life
Amphora
an ancient jar with two handles and a narrow neck
Polis
Greek city-state
Reserve Column
Column with no weight bearing function
Athenian agora
Archiac through Hellenistic Greek. 600 B.C.E.-150 C.E. Plan
It is the most richly adorned and quality of its sculptural decoration it is surpassed only by the Parthenon. the sculptural decoration and certain sections of the roof were made up of Parian marble.
Anavysos Kouros
Archaic Greek. c. 530 B.C.E. Marble with remnants of paint
Geometric almost abstract forms predominate, and complex anatomical details, such as the chest muscles and pelvic arch, are rendered in beautiful analogous patterns. It exemplifies two important aspects of Archaic Greek art—an interest in lifelike vitality and a concern with design.
Peplos Kore from the Acropolis
Archiac Greek. c. 530 B.C.E. Marble, painted details
Greeks painted their sculptures in bright colors and adorned them with metal jewelry
Sarcophagus of the Spouses
Etruscan. c. 520 B.C.E. Terra cotta
The Sarcophagus of the Spouses as an object conveys a great deal of information about Etruscan culture and its customs. The convivial theme of the sarcophagus reflects the funeral customs of Etruscan society and the elite nature of the object itself provides important information about the ways in which funerary custom could reinforce the identity and standing of aristocrats among the community of the living.
Temple of Minerva and sculpture of Apollo
Master sculptor Vulca. c. 510-500 B.C.E. Original temple of wood, mud brick, or tufa; terra cotta sculpture
The Temple of Minerva was a colorful and ornate structure, typically had stone foundations but its wood, mud-brick and terracotta superstructure suffered far more from exposure to the elements.
Apollo Master sculpture was a completely Etruscan innovation to use sculpture in this way, placed at the peak of the temple roof—creating what must have been an impressive tableau against the backdrop of the sky.
Tomb of the Triclinium
Tarquinia, Italy. Etruscan. c. 480-470 B.C.E. Tufa and fresco
He considers the artistic quality оf the tomb's frescoes tо be superior tо those оf mоst оther Etruscan tombs. The tomb іs named after the triclinium, the formal dining room whіch appears іn the frescoes оf the tomb.
Niobides Krater
Anonymous vase painter of Classical Greece known as the Niobid Painter. c. 460-450 B.C.E. Clay, red-figure technique
By bringing in elements of wall paintings, the painter has given this vase its exceptional character. Wall painting was a major art form that developed considerably during the late fifth century BC, and is now only known to us through written accounts. Complex compositions were perfected, which involved numerous figures placed at different levels. This is the technique we find here where, for the first time on a vase, the traditional isocephalia of the figures has been abandoned.
Doryphoros (Spear Bearer)
Polykleitos. Original 450-440 B.C.E. Roman copy (marble) of Greek original (bronze)
Doryphoros was one of the most famous statues in the ancient world and many known Roman copies exist. The original was created in around 450 BC in bronze and was presumably even more tremendous than the known copies that have been unearthed. Doryphoros is also an early example of contrapposto position, a postion which Polykleitos constructed masterfully (Moon).
Acropolis
Athens, Greece. Iktinos and Kallikrates. c. 447-410 B.C.E. Marble
The most recognizable building on the Acropolis is the Parthenon, one of the most iconic buildings in the world, it has influenced architecture in practically every western country.
Grave Stele of Hegeso
Attributed to Kallimachos. c. 410 B.C.E. Marble and paint
In the relief sculpture, the theme is the treatment and portrayal of women in ancient Greek society, which did not allow women an independent life.
Winged Victory of Samothrace
Hellenistic Greek. c. 190 B.C.E. Marble
The theatrical stance, vigorous movement, and billowing drapery of this Hellenistic sculpture are combined with references to the Classical period-prefiguring the baroque aestheticism of the Pergamene sculptors.
Great Alter of Zeus and Athens at Pergamon
Asia Minor (represents-day Turkey) Hellenistic Greek. c. 175 B.C.E. Marble
The alter of Zeus with its richly decorated frieze, a masterpiece of Hellenistic art. It's a masterful display of vigorous action and emotion—triumph, fury, despair—and the effect is achieved by exaggeration of anatomical detail and features and by a shrewd use of the rendering of hair and drapery to heighten the mood.
House of Vetti
Pompeii, Italy. Imperial Roman. c. second century B.C.E.; rebuilt c. 62-79 C.E. Cut stone and fresco
The House of the Vettii offers key insights into domestic architecture and interior decoration in the last days of the city of Pompeii. The house itself is architecturally significant not only because of its size but also because of the indications it gives of important changes that were underway in the design of Roman houses during the third quarter of the first century C.E.
Alexander Mosaic from the House of Faun, Pompeii
Republican Roman. c. 100 B.C.E. Mosaic
The artistic importance of this work of art comes at the subtle and unique artistic style that the artist employed in the making of the mosaic. The first major attribute of this great piece of artwork is the use of motion and intensity in the battle and the use of drama unfolding before the viewer's eyes to further the effect of glory in the mosaic.
Seated boxer
Hellenistic Greek. c. 100 B.C.E. Bronze
The sculpure shows both body and visage to convey personality and emotion. It shows transformation of pain into bronze, a parallel of recent photos of our contemporary Olympic athletes after their strenuous competitions.
Head of a Roman patrician
Republican Roma. c. 75-50 B.C.E. Marble
the physical traits of this portrait image are meant to convey seriousness of mind (gravitas) and the virtue (virtus) of a public career by demonstrating the way in which the subject literally wears the marks of his endeavors.
Augustus of Prima Porta
Imperial Roman. Early first century C.E. Marble
This statue is not simply a portrait of the emperor, it expresses Augustus' connection to the past, his role as a military victor, his connection to the gods, and his role as the bringer of the Roman Peace.
Colosseum (Flavin Amphitheater)
Rome, Italy. Imperial Roman. 70-80 C.E. Stone and concrete
The Colosseum is famous for it's human characteristics. It was built by the Romans in about the first century. It is made of tens of thousands of tons of a kind of marble called travertine.
Forum of Trajan
Rome, Italy. Apollodorus of Damascus. Forum and markets: 106-112 C.E.; column completed 113 C.E. Brick and concrete (architecture); marble (column)
It is an amazing work of art for each detail of each scene to the very top of the Column is carefully carved. It is astounded by the artistic skill it displays.
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus
Late Imperial Roman. c. 250 C.E. Marble
Change the ideas about cremation and burial. Extremely crowded surface with figures piled on top of each other. Figures lack individuality, confusion of battle is echoed by congested composition, and Roman army trounces bearded and defeat Barbarians.
Catacomb of Priscilla
Rome, Italy. Late Antique Europe. c. 200-400 C.E. Excavated tufa and fresco
The wall paintings are considered the first Christian artwork.
Entablature
a horizontal part in classical architecture that rests on the columns and consists of architrave, frieze, and cornice.
Pediment
an architectural element found particularly in classical, neoclassical and baroque architecture, and its derivatives, consisting of a gable, usually of a triangular shape, placed above the horizontal structure of the entablature, typically supported by columns.

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