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Chapter 2 The Reality of Conducting a Study
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Terms in this set (21)
measurement
1) is the concept under study adequately reflected by the proposed measurements?
2) are the data measured accurately?
3) is there a sufficient quantity of the data to draw a reasonable conclusion?
scientific method
1) gather info
2) formulate hypothesis
3) collect further data
4) if the data supports the hypothesis, it becomes a law. If not, construct a new one and retest.
confounding variable
a variable that was not controlled or accounted for by the researcher and this damaged the integrity of the experiment
control experiment
comparison of several treatments in the same environment
replication experiment
there will be a natural variability among experimental units so we must replicate our results (uses many subjects)
randomization experiment
subjects should be randomly assigned to treatments
response variable
variable of interest in an experiment
EX: "SAT scores"
explanatory variable
a variable that affects the variable of interest (response variable) in an experiment
EX: "SAT prep course"
level of measurement
the quality of data. Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
nominal data
data that represent whether a variable possesses some characteristic
ordinal data
represent categories that have some associated order
interval data
data that can be ordered and the arithmetic difference is meaningful.
Ratio data
similar to interval data, except that they have a meaningful zero point and the ratio of two data points is meaningful
qualitative data
measurements that can change in kind but not in degree. often consists of labels or descriptions and do not have naturally occurring numerical values
quantitative data
measurements that change in magnitude from trial to trial such that some order or ranking can be applied. can be measured using a naturally occurring numerical scale.
Discrete
data that can take on only particular values and cannot take on the values in between (such as 1,2,3,4)
continuous
data that can take on any value within some interval
The IQ scores of students at the local college
Quantitative, Discrete, Interval
birth years of each person in your family
Quantitative, Discrete, Interval
Five people are waiting in line at a bakery and are given cards with numbers to represent when they will be served. The person with the lowest ticket will be served next.
qualitative, neither, ordinal
Fifty people were asked to respond to a survey about credit card usage
Qualitative, Neither, Ordinal
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