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Art History A Units 5-6
Terms in this set (58)
What did the images from the Inuit art reveal?
the importance attached to the animals they relied on food for: walrus, seal, fish, whale, and caribou
Who wore the mask, like the one representing a moon goddess, in religious ceremonies and for what purpose?
an Inuit Shaman (leader believed to have healing powers) to go into a trance while dancing to become a messenger between the living and spirit world
What are totem poles?
tall posts carved and painted with a series of animal symbols associated with a particular family or clan
What was the purpose of a kiva and what are its main features?
a circular underground structure that served as a spiritual and social gathering place. Had a flat roof with one entry and a raised fire pit in the middle of kiva floor. Had sipapu
What is a sipapu?
a small hole that symbolized the place where people originally came into the world
How did the arrival of the Spanish and Mexican settlers in the Southwest influence the art of the Navajo? Describe the qualities of a Navajo saddle blanket.
they introduced them to new designs and patterns. The qualities were closeness of weave, rich and vibrant colors, and a bold design
Explain why the Native American tribes from the Great Plain region did not create such items as pottery or basketware, and describe what they did create.
the movement from place to place made pottery and basket ware impractical. They made bows ad flint tipped arrows
Who were the Olmec and what were their most well-known artworks?
they were the first great civilization in Mexico, and gigantic rock head sculptures
Why were Mayan cities constructed with large central plazas? How did the reliefs on the buildings change?
to accommodate the masses of people who gathered to witness these ceremonies. The reliefs began to become more elaborate and complex
How was art linked to sacrificial rituals in the Aztec culture?
statues to the gods were carved and placed in the temples atop stepped pyramids and statues of priest and celebrants dressed in sacrificial skins
What was Machu Picchu? Where and why was it built? What made the city so durable and what has it withstood?
It was an Inca city built to protect the people from attacks by hostile tribes living in the jungle to the east. Buildings were constructed of huge stone blocks cut and locked into place, withstanding centuries of war and earthquakes
How long ago were the sculptural portraits of the first Yoruba kings and queens made? What material and technique was used to make them?
by 1100, metal (previously with wax)
What materials were used in the constructions of the mosque in Jenne? Describe the features of this mosque.
adobe brick (clay and straw). wooden beams project from the sides of the mosque to provide supports. proportions are monumental
What was a kente cloth?
When was kente cloth first created and who controlled the use of this cloth? How was it assembled?
during the 1600s by the Asante king. woven in narrow strips stitched together
What was the measure of wealth for the Akan people, and who controlled its use?
gold, and the kings
What tool did the African artists rely on when creating their woodcarvings?
an adze, and axlike tool with an arched blade at right angles to the handle
What does the use of metal in Kota sculptures indicate?
the importance attached to the figures
In what ways does the concept of a "mask" include more than just a face covering in African societies?
They are used in performance, and during ceremonies or religious rituals. masks can embody powerful forces and are believed to have supernatural abilities
What do leaf and wooden masks of the Bwa people represent?
the Bwa people consider lead masks the most ancient mask form and closely associate them with nature and life's regenerate power
What are symbols and what part did they play in early Christian art?
a symbol is something that becomes a representation of something. Christian artists used symbols as a kind of code
Even though Christian are appeared Roman, how were they different?
the beliefs and ideas they passed on to other Christians were not Roman
What did Christians use as a model for their churches? What did they add that barely changed the simplicity of the exterior?
basilicas- they added a campanile (bell tower)
What brought about the fall of Rome or the Western Roman Empire? Who became the central authority in the West?
Rome split and the western emperors lost influence and prestige and fell to barbarian invaders. The church became central authority
What is a mosaic? Where were mosaics seen?
a decoration made with small pieces of glass and stone set in cement, seen on walls
What name was given to the eastern half of the Roman Empire after the fall of Rome in Italy? What city surpassed the glories of Rome? How long did this empire last?
The Byzantine Empire, Constantinople, and 1,000 years
What are piers?
massive vertical pillars that support arches made of cut stone
How did the use of piers affect the design of church interiors?
the builders could make thinner wall and add more windows
What is the Koran and what role did Muhammad play in it creation?
the holy scripture of Islam, and after Muhammad's death, the messages he received from God created the Koran
What is the most important part of a mosque? Describe its appearance.
The mihrab, a niche in the wall that indicates the direction of Mecca and is large enough to accommodate a single standing figure
What is the Alhambra? Where is it found and what is its significance?
a fortress-place on a hill overlooking Granada city. It is considered one of the most impressive examples of Islamic architecture
Name and describe the architectural feature found at the heart of Alhambra.
at the heart is the Court of Lions, built around massive low-lying fountain. 124 marble columns, fountain carved with lions
What types of images were Islamic book illustrators allowed to depict?
images that could never have been represented in mosques
What began at the same time Rome fell? How did the loss of a strong, central government affect society?
the Early Medieval period. The loss caused great uncertainty because the government assured law and order
Describe feudalism and why the life of a serf was unjust and difficult
feudalism was a system in which weak noblemen gave up their lands and much of their freedom to more powerful lords in return for protection. Serfs did not have land to give and had to work as servants
What is monasticism? Where and when did it originate?
a way of life in which individuals gathered together to spend their days in prayer and self-denial. It originated in the Near East in 3rd and 4th centuries
Name and describe the illustrations used on the Early Medieval illuminated manuscript pages.
delicate miniature paintings done by monks in silver, gold, and rich colors that were extremely important to record history
Give examples of symbolism used by manuscript illustrators.
symbols were used to help the reader identify the writer. Matthew symbolized by and angel, Mark = lion, Luke = bull, John = eagle
What type of art did the Church favor during the Medieval period?
art that could teach and inspire people in their faith
Under the feudal system, what was the source of wealth and power? What was the main purpose of Romanesque castles built during this period?
land. main purpose was defense (which eliminated windows)
Why was it necessary to increase the size of Romanesque churches?
because the church needed to be able to hold the great number of pilgrims that visited them
What part of the church building is the tympanum? Where is it located? Why was this feature added?
the half-round panel that fills space between the lintel and over the doorway. It was found to be ideal for relief carvings, because peoples' eyes were drawn to it
What were the main concerns of Romanesque painters?
the presentation of easy to understand religious symbols
Describe common features of Romanesque paintings.
easy to read message, flat and colorful shapes, and bold use of line
Define the term Gothic and explain how and why the term was given to the art of this period. Why is the term misleading?
a period that begun around the middle of the 12th century and lasted to the end of the 15th century. The term was given to the buildings that replaced classical forms, but the term is misleading because the Goths didn't design or build the buildings
What is a flying buttress?
a support or brace that counter-acts the outward trust of an arch or vault that has to reach over the side aisles of the church
List the ways Romanesque churches differed from Gothic cathedrals.
1) Gothic architecture moved away from Romanesque heaviness and solidity towards lightness and grace
2) Romanesque churches were lighted with candles and lamps, whereas Gothic had many windows
3) Romanesque churches were in rural settings, whereas Gothic ones were in cities
What structural features enabled Gothic builders to add windows to their cathedrals?
flying buttresses created a support of the ceiling, eliminating the need for solid walls
How do Gothic sculptures differ from sculptures on a Romanesque church?
Romanesque figures appear firmly attached to the wall, but Gothic sculptures made theirs project outward in space
Describe the ways Gothic sculptures demonstrated an increased concern for reality.
their figures appear to move and look about, and the drapery looks as though it covers a 3D body
What are gargoyles?
the grotesque flying monster that project out from the upper portions of the huge churches
In what ways did stained glass art influence manuscript illumination in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries?
the illustrations were often placed within a painted architectural framework that resembled the frames used for stain glass windows. Figures were drawn with firm, dark, outlines, suggestive of the lead strips used to join sections of stained glass
What effect did the design of Italian churches of the Gothic period have on the art used to decorate the interiors of those churches?
paintings on wooden panels were also used to decorate the interiors of Italian churches
How do Giotto's painted figures differ from those painted by earlier artists?
Giotto painted natural-looking figures who appeared to take real actions in real space
What is a fresco painting?
a painting created when pigment is applied to a wall spread with fresh plaster
What limitations are imposed on artists who used the fresco technique?
because the technique had to be finished before the plaster dried, it had to be simple and not as detailed
What is one of the best examples of Byzantine architecture? Who was it built by?
the Hagia Sophia is one of the best examples of Byzantine architecture and was built by emperor Justinian
What was the third period of the Middle Ages called?
the Late Middle Ages