27 terms

Chapter 2

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Chromium
atomic # = 24 = 24 electrons

# of Neutrons = mass # - atomic #

# of Neutrons = 52 - 24 = 28 neutrons
What element has an atomic number of 24? How many neutrons and electrons does a neutral atom of this element have?
The atoms have opposite signs and attract each other (Ionic Bond)
The mineral fluorite (CaF2) is composed of calcium (Ca+2) and Fluorine (F-1). What kind of bonding holds them together? Explain how you know this.
a)
Feldspar: silicone, aluminum, potassium oxide, calcium oxide, and sodium oxide.
Quartz: silicone and oxygen

b)
Both are framework silicate (silicone and oxygen)

c)
Feldspar: well-developed (planar) fractures
Quartz: conchoidal (glass-like) fracture
Compare feldspar and quartz.

a. How do they differ chemically?
b. What type of silicate structure does each have?
c. How would you distinguish between them on the basis of cleavage?
Pyroxenes: single-chain silicates with each silica tetrahedron sharing two oxygen elements with neighboring tetrahedrals.

Amphiboles: double-chain silicates. Parallel single-chain silicates that share an oxygen element with the parallel tetrahedral

Cleavage
How do the crystal structures of pyroxenes and amphiboles differ from one another? Which physical property is used to distinguish between them?
a substance that cannot be broken down because it's atoms are the same.

Iron, Calcium, Carbon
Element
solid inorganic substance, definite chemical composition.

Quartz, Calcite, Diamond
Mineral
a naturally formed solid material composed of minerals

Granite, Limestone, Obsidian
Rock
Cleavage

Pyroxene has two cleavages at 90 degrees where Olvine has none
How would you distinguish the following minerals on the basis of physical properties?

olvine/pyroxene
Hardness or Luster

Quartz: hardest mineral, luster (glassy)
Calcite: the luster varies
How would you distinguish the following minerals on the basis of physical properties?

calcite/quartz
Cleavage

Mica: 1 cleavage
Halite: 3 cleavages (cubic cleavage)
How would you distinguish the following minerals on the basis of physical properties?

mica/halite
Luster

amphibole: glassy
hematite: metallic
How would you distinguish the following minerals on the basis of physical properties?

amphibole/hematite
They do not contain silica

-Calcite
-Dolomite
-Gypsum
-Sulfide
-Hematite
-Halite
-Gold
-Copper
-Diamond
-Graphite
Non-Silicate minerals are not as abundant (carbonates, sulfates, etc.) generally classified by ion groups
-native elements: diamond, sulfur, gold, copper, platiunum
-carbonates: calcite, dolomite
-halides: halite, fluorite
-oxides: hematite, magnetite, corundum, ice
-Sulfides: galena, pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite
-Sulfates: gypsum
-Oxygen
-Silicone
-Aluminum
-Iron
-Calcium
-Sodium
-Potassium
-Magnesium
What are the eight most abundant elements in the Earth's crust?
-molten rock (magma)
-evaporation
-biological activity
Describe the different conditions under which minerals form?
c) element
A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical methods is a(n)

a) crystal
b) molecule
c) element
d) acid
a) organic
Which of these is not part of the definition of mineral?

a) organic
b) crystalline
c) specific chemical composition
d) naturally occuring
c) electron
The subatomic particle that contributes a single negative electrical charge is the

a) proton
b) neutron
c) electron
c) isotopes
Atoms of an element containing different numbers of neutrons but the same number of protons are called

a) ions
b) covalent
c) isotopes
d) neutral
b) ions
Atoms with either a positive or negative charge are called

a) compounds
b) ions
c) elements
d) isotopes
a) ionic
The bonding between Cl and Na in Halite is

a) ionic
b) covalent
c) metallic
d) it has four silicon atoms
Which is not true of a single silicon-oxygen tetrahedon?

a) the atoms of the tetrahedron are strongly bonded together
b) it has a net negative charge
c) the formula is SiO4
d) it has four silicon atoms
c) two
In a single-chain silicate, how many of the oxygen atoms in each silica tetrahedron are shared with neighboring silica tetrahedra?

a) none
b) one
c) two
d) three
e) four
c) gypsum
Which of these common minerals is not a silicate?

a) quartz
b) feldspar
c) gypsum
d) mica
a) 2-3
On Mohs' hardness scale, a fingernail has a hardness of about

a) 2-3
b) 3-4
c) 5-6
d) 7-8
d) cleavage
The ability of a mineral to break along preferred directions is called

a) fracture
b) crystal form
c) hardness
d) cleavage
c) made of repeating patterns of atoms
Crystalline substances are always

a) ionically bonded
b) minerals
c) made of repeating patterns of atoms
d) made of glass
c) halite
Which of these minerals commonly forms as an evaporate (precipitate from evaporating water)?

a) quartz
b) hematite
c) halite
d) feldspar