50 terms

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Internal Rhyme
When two words rhyme in the same line of poetry.

Ex: Once upon a midnight DREARY, while I pondered weak and WEARY.
Metonymy
Substituting the name of one object for another object closely associated with it

Ex: The pen is mightier than the sword.
Oxymoron
An expression in which two words that contradict each other are joined

Ex: Living death
Pathetic Fallacy / Personification
a type of figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics

Ex: The aura of the alleyway made my skin crawl.
Imagery
Description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)

Ex: The fabric though beautiful with its tropical theme, smelled of alcohol and made my skin itch.
Enjambment
Line runs over to the next line without punctuation

Ex: She dreamed of a world
where she was fearless.
Conceit
An extended metaphor

Ex: Don't get bent out of shape.
Masculine Rhyme
A rhyme ending on the final stressed syllable--spent, went
Alliteration
Words that have the same beginning sounds together

Ex: Peter Piper Picked Pickled Peppers.
Repetition
Repeated use of sounds, words, or ideas for effect and emphasis

Ex: When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child.
Symbolism
Something that represents something else

Ex: A heart represents love.
Simile
A comparison using "like" or "as"

Ex: He was busy as a bee.
Allusion
A statement that refers to something without mentioning it directly

Ex: She was his Achilles heel.
Contrast
The act of distinguishing by comparing differences

Ex: One of them was a muggle and the other was a wizard.
Anastrophe
Reversal of the usual, logical, or normal order of the parts of a sentence

Ex: "The path to the dark side, fear is." - Yoda, Star Wars
Identical Rhyme
Rhyme created by the repetition of a word

Uses the same word

Ex: "We paused before a house that seemed
A Swelling of the Ground--
The Roof was scarcely visible--
The Cornice-- in the Ground."
-E. Dickinson
Parallel Structure
The repetition of words or phrases that have similar grammatical structures

Ex: TO SUCCEED is TO OPEN a new opportunity.
Metaphor
A comparison without using like or as.

Ex: Language is a road map of a culture.
Apostrophe
' - This punctuation
or

Addressing something nonhuman as if it were human
Example: Death, be not proud . . .
Onomatopoeia
A word that imitates the sound it represents.

Ex: Boom
Stanza
A group of lines in a poem.

Ex: "I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages and ages hence;
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I--
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference."
- The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost
Iambic Pentameter
A line of poetry that contains five iambic feet

Ex: "To be or not to be that is the question."
-William Shakespeare
Assonance
Repetition of vowel sounds

Ex: The rain in spain falls mainly in the plains.
Half Rhyme
Words whose sounds are similar but not identical.

Ex: On top of the hill,
the moon is full.
Irony
The use of words to express something other than the literal meaning.

Ex: The fireman afraid of fire.
Setting
The context in time and place in which the action of a story occurs.

Ex: On May 4, 2001, in Seattle, Washington my best friend was born.
Dialect
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.

Ex: Some people say "hi", and others say "yo".
Paradox
A statement that seems true but at the same time seems to also have an opposite truth


A statement that seems contradictory but is actually true

Ex: Less is more.
Feminine Rhyme
Applies to the rhyming of one or more unstressed syllables

Ex."dicing" and "enticing."
Hyperbole
Exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.

Ex: My feet are killing me.
Satire
Using humor to expose something or someone to ridicule.

Ex:
Structure
The arrangement or framework of a sentence, paragraph, or entire work.
Contraction
A word made by combining or omitting letters

Ex: Shouldn't, Wouln't, Couldn't
Euphemism
An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant.

Ex: Instead of saying "you're fired" you can say "I have to let you go".
Rhyme Scheme
A regular pattern of rhyming words in a poem
Couplet
A pair of rhymed lines that may or may not constitute a separate stanza in a poem.
Quatrain
4 line stanza

Ex: "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all tooo short a date."

-Shakespeare
Sonnet
14 line poem in iambic pentameter
Blank Verse
Poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter
Free Verse
Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme
Aside
A short remark or set of lines that are spoken by a character directly to the audience.

Ex: (I'm not sure how to put this as an example but Shakespeare had scenes that consisted of an aside in his plays)
Ottava Rima
An 8 line rhyming stanza of a poem
Mood
Feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for the reader
Synecdoche
A figure of speech in which a part is made to represent the whole or vice versa

Ex: The word "bread" can be used to represent food in general or money (e.g. he is the breadwinner; music is my bread and butter). The word "sails" is often used to refer to a whole ship. The phrase "hired hands" can be used to refer to workmen.
Theme
Central idea of a work of literature
Anaphora
The repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of consecutive lines or sentences.

Ex: In the novel Night by Elie Wiesel, Never shall I forget is the phrase that is repeated in a section of the book as he reflects on the events in his life during the time period in the book.
Trochee
a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable
Spondee
A foot of two syllables, both of which are stressed
Closed vs. Open Poems
Closed poems follow patterns of lines, meter, rhymes, and stanzas, whereas open form poetry does not
Catalectic (Hyper versus Hypo)
A hyper catalectic has an extra syllable or syllables at the end of a metrically complete verse or in a metrical foot. A hypo catalectic lacks one syllable in the last foot.
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