Ex: Once upon a midnight DREARY, while I pondered weak and WEARY.
Substituting the name of one object for another object closely associated with it
Ex: The pen is mightier than the sword.
An expression in which two words that contradict each other are joined
Ex: Living death
Pathetic Fallacy / Personification
a type of figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics
Ex: The aura of the alleyway made my skin crawl.
Description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)
Ex: The fabric though beautiful with its tropical theme, smelled of alcohol and made my skin itch.
Line runs over to the next line without punctuation
Ex: She dreamed of a world where she was fearless.
An extended metaphor
Ex: Don't get bent out of shape.
A rhyme ending on the final stressed syllable--spent, went
Words that have the same beginning sounds together
Ex: Peter Piper Picked Pickled Peppers.
Repeated use of sounds, words, or ideas for effect and emphasis
Ex: When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child.
Something that represents something else
Ex: A heart represents love.
A comparison using "like" or "as"
Ex: He was busy as a bee.
A statement that refers to something without mentioning it directly
Ex: She was his Achilles heel.
The act of distinguishing by comparing differences
Ex: One of them was a muggle and the other was a wizard.
Reversal of the usual, logical, or normal order of the parts of a sentence
Ex: "The path to the dark side, fear is." - Yoda, Star Wars
Rhyme created by the repetition of a word
Uses the same word
Ex: "We paused before a house that seemed A Swelling of the Ground-- The Roof was scarcely visible-- The Cornice-- in the Ground." -E. Dickinson
The repetition of words or phrases that have similar grammatical structures
Ex: TO SUCCEED is TO OPEN a new opportunity.
A comparison without using like or as.
Ex: Language is a road map of a culture.
' - This punctuation or
Addressing something nonhuman as if it were human Example: Death, be not proud . . .
A word that imitates the sound it represents.
A group of lines in a poem.
Ex: "I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence; Two roads diverged in a wood, and I-- I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference." - The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost
A line of poetry that contains five iambic feet
Ex: "To be or not to be that is the question." -William Shakespeare
Repetition of vowel sounds
Ex: The rain in spain falls mainly in the plains.
Words whose sounds are similar but not identical.
Ex: On top of the hill, the moon is full.
The use of words to express something other than the literal meaning.
Ex: The fireman afraid of fire.
The context in time and place in which the action of a story occurs.
Ex: On May 4, 2001, in Seattle, Washington my best friend was born.
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
Ex: Some people say "hi", and others say "yo".
A statement that seems true but at the same time seems to also have an opposite truth
A statement that seems contradictory but is actually true
Ex: Less is more.
Applies to the rhyming of one or more unstressed syllables
Ex."dicing" and "enticing."
Exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.
Ex: My feet are killing me.
Using humor to expose something or someone to ridicule.
The arrangement or framework of a sentence, paragraph, or entire work.
A word made by combining or omitting letters
Ex: Shouldn't, Wouln't, Couldn't
An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant.
Ex: Instead of saying "you're fired" you can say "I have to let you go".
A regular pattern of rhyming words in a poem
A pair of rhymed lines that may or may not constitute a separate stanza in a poem.
4 line stanza
Ex: "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?Thou art more lovely and more temperate. Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all tooo short a date."
14 line poem in iambic pentameter
Poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter
Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme
A short remark or set of lines that are spoken by a character directly to the audience.
Ex: (I'm not sure how to put this as an example but Shakespeare had scenes that consisted of an aside in his plays)
An 8 line rhyming stanza of a poem
Feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for the reader
A figure of speech in which a part is made to represent the whole or vice versa
Ex: The word "bread" can be used to represent food in general or money (e.g. he is the breadwinner; music is my bread and butter). The word "sails" is often used to refer to a whole ship. The phrase "hired hands" can be used to refer to workmen.
Central idea of a work of literature
The repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of consecutive lines or sentences.
Ex: In the novel Night by Elie Wiesel, Never shall I forget is the phrase that is repeated in a section of the book as he reflects on the events in his life during the time period in the book.
a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable
A foot of two syllables, both of which are stressed
Closed vs. Open Poems
Closed poems follow patterns of lines, meter, rhymes, and stanzas, whereas open form poetry does not
Catalectic (Hyper versus Hypo)
A hyper catalectic has an extra syllable or syllables at the end of a metrically complete verse or in a metrical foot. A hypo catalectic lacks one syllable in the last foot.