vocabulary 22000 - Chapter4
Terms in this set (70)
(literally, "front part of the arm") part of the arm from the wrist to the elbow
Henry protected his face from George's blows by raising his forearms.
(literally, "one who has been or existed before") ancestor; forefather
John F. Kennedy's forebears migrated to America from Ireland.
a strong feeling that something bad is going to happen soon; feeling beforehand of coming trouble; misgiving; presentiment
The day before the accident, I had a foreboding that something would go wrong.
estimate beforehand or a future happening; prediction; prophecy
Have you listened to the weather forecast for tomorrow?
(literally, "front part of the front") foremost place or part; vanguard
In combat the officer was always in the forefront of the attack, leading his men on to victory.
power of seeing beforehand what is likely to happen; prudent; (antonyms: hindsight)
Foresight is better than hindsight.
front matter preceding the text of a book; preface; introduction
Before Chapter 1, there is a brief foreword in which the author explains why he wrote the book.
to show or say that something will happen in the future; indicate beforehand
Our defeat in the championship game was foreshadowed by injuries to two of our star players in a previous game.
something that has just been mentioned, read, dealt with etc; going before; preceding; (antonyms: following)
Carefully review the foregoing chapter before reading any further.
the best or most important; standing at the front; first; most advanced; leading; principal; chief; in a leading position among a group of people or things
Did you know that Benjamin Franklin was one of the foremost inventors of the eighteenth century?
wrong or erroneous belief
People thought the earth was flat until Columbus corrected that misbelief.
bad act; wicked deed
The wrongdoer was punished for his misdeed by a fine and imprisonment.
a feeling of doubt or fear about what might happen or about whether something is right; uneasy feeling; feeling of doubt or suspicion; foreboding; lack of confidence
Dad has no misgivings when Mother takes the wheel, because she is an excellent driver.
a small accident or mistake that does not have very serious results; bad happening; misfortune; unlucky accident; mischance
Right after the collision, each driver blamed the other for the mishap.
a mistake, especially one that is caused by not understanding a situation correctly; wrong step; slip in conduct or judgement; blunder
Quitting school is a misstep that you may regret for the rest of your life.
(literally, "fire wrongly") to fail to be fired or exploded properly; if a gun misfires, the bullet does not come out; if a plan or joke misfires, it goes wrong and does not have the result that you intended; (synonyms: backfire)
The bear escaped when the hunter's rifle misfired.
to put something somewhere, then forget where you put it; to put or lay in an unremembered place; lose
Yesterday I mislaid my biology book and it took me about a half hour to find it.
to make someone believe something that is not true by giving them information that is false or not complete; to lead astray (in the wrong direction); deceive; delude; beguile
Some traffic signs are so confusing that they mislead the traveler.
a looking beyond; prospect for the future
The outlook for unskilled laborers is not bright, as their jobs are gradually being taken over by machines.
(literally, what is "put out") a yield or product; an amount produced
The output of the average American factory worker is steadily increasing.
to grow beyond or too large for; if a business outgrows a building, it begins to have too many people or too much work to fit into the building
The jacket Dad bought me last year is too small. I have outgrown it.
to continue to exist or be effective for a longer time than something else; to last longer than; outlive; survive
Our kitchen table is more solidly constructed than the chairs and will probably outlast them.
to run faster than
We scored a touchdown when Joe caught a forward pass and outran his pursuers.
to gain an advantage over someone using tricks or clever plans; to get the better of by being more clever
In his detective stories, Jim manages to outwit the cleverest criminals.
looking or sounding as if it belongs to a (foreign) land beyond ours; strange; fantastic; strange and unusual
A masquerade is always interesting because people come in such outlandish costumes.
expressing your opinions honestly and directly, even when doing this might annoy some people; speaking out freely or boldly; frank; not reserved; (antonyms: reticent)
Mary sometimes hurts others when she criticizes their work because she is too outspoken.
too much of a drug taken at one time; quantity of medicine beyond what is to be taken at one time or in a given period; too big a dose
Don't take more of the medicine than the doctor ordered; an overdose may be dangerous.
too great a supply; an excessive supply
We have a shortage of skilled technicians but an oversupply of unskilled workers.
to place too heavy a load on; burden excessively; overtax
It would overburden me to have my piano lesson Thursday because I have so much homework on that day.
to make too high an estimate (rough calculation) of the worth or size of something or someone; overvalue
Joe overestimated the capacity of the bus when he thought it could hold 60; it has room for only 48.
to cast a shadow over; be more important than; outweigh; to make an occasion or period of time less enjoyable by making people feel sad or worried
Their gaieties were overshadowed by the sad news.
to cover over completely; overpower; overthrow; crush
The department store guards were nearly overwhelmed by the crowds of shoppers waiting for the sale to begin.
always trying to control other people without considering their wishes or feelings; domineering over others; inclined to dictate
When the monitor gave too many orders, the teacher scolded him for being overbearing.
too sure of oneself; excessively confident
I was so sure of passing that I wasn't going to study, but Dad advised me not to be overconfident.
too liberal in giving; excessively openhanded
Because the service was poor, Mother thought Dad was overgenerous in leaving the waiter a 15% tip.
lack of concern, anxiety or interest; indifference
The audience was breathless with anxiety during the daring tightrope act, though the acrobats themselves performed with seeming unconcern for their own safety.
free from deception or mistaken ideas; set straight; to free from deception, illusion, or error
If you think I can get Mr. Black to hire you because he is my cousin, let me undeceive you. I have no influence with him.
to upset or frighten someone so that they lose their confidence or their ability to think clearly; deprive or nerve of courage; cause to lose self-control; upset
The unsportsmanlike noises of the fans so unnerved our star player that he missed two foul shots in a row.
do the opposite of scramble; restore to intelligible form; to make a confusing situation or confusing feelings easier to understand; to change a television signal or a message that has been sent in code (= a deliberately confusing way ) so that it can be seen or read
The previous secretary had mixed up the files so badly that it took my sister about a week to unscramble them.
release from a shackle (anything that confines the legs or arms); set free from restraint
When mutinous sailors were put in irons in the olden days, nobody was allowed to unshackle them.
not abridged; not made shorter; complete
Though an abridged dictionary is convenient to use; it contains far fewer definitions than an unabridged dictionary.
not biased; not prejudiced in favor of or against; fair
Don't ask the mother of a contestant to serve as a judge because it may be hard for her to remain unbiased.
not quenchable; not capable of being satisfied; inextinguishable
Many teenagers have an unquenchable thirst for adventure stories, they read one after another.
not wary; not alert; heedless
An unwary pedestrian is much likely to be struck by a car than one who looks both ways and crosses with light.
especially American English bushes, small trees etc growing under and around larger trees in a forest; shrubs, bushes, etc., growing beneath large trees in a forest; undergrowth
On its way through the dense jungle, the patrol had to be constantly wary of enemy soldiers concealed in the underbrush.
(literally, "lower than a graduate") a student in a college or university who has not yet earned his first degree
Most undergraduates take four years to earn a degree, but some achieve it sooner by attending summer sessions.
If too little is deducted from Dad's weekly wages for income tax, it results in an underpayment at the end of the year.
person or persons who sign at the end of (literally, "under") a letter or document
Among the undersigned in the petition to the governor were some of the most prominent persons in the state.
a statement below the truth; a restrained statement in mocking contrast to what might be said; a statement that is not strong enough to express how good, bad, impressive etc something really is
Frank's remark that he was "slightly bruised" in the accident is an understatement; he suffered two fractured ribs.
one who "studies under" and learns the part of a regular performer so as to be his substitute if necessary
While the star is recuperating from her illness, her role will be played by her understudy.
draw a line beneath; emphasize
When we take notes, our teacher wants us to underscore items that are especially important.
sell at a lower price than
When discount houses tried to undersell department stores, the latter reduced prices too and adopted the slogan "We will not be undersold".
a country, area etc that is poor and where there is not much modern industry; insufficient developed because of a lack of capital and trained personnel for exploiting natural resources
Our country has spent billions of dollars to help the underdeveloped nations improve their standard of living.
very poor, with worse living conditions, educational opportunities etc than most people in society; insufficiently privileged; deprived through social or economic oppression of some of the fundamental rights supposed to belong to all
The underprivileged child from the crowded slum tenement has many more problems to overcome than the child from the middle-class home.
a very big change that often causes problems; violent heaving up; commotion; extreme agitation
The prime minister's proposal for new taxes created such an upheaval that his government fell.
maintenance ("keeping up"); cost of operating and repairing
Our neighbor traded in his old car because the upkeep had become too high.
someone who behaves as if they were more important than they really are and who shows a lack of respect towards people who are more experienced or older; person who has suddenly risen to wealth and power, especially if he is conceited and unpleasant
When the new representative entered the legislature, some older members received him coldly because they regarded him as an upstart.
upward turn toward better conditions
Most merchants report a slowdown in sales for October, but confidently expect an upturn with approach of Christmas.
bring up to date
Our world geography teacher has just received an updated map that shows the latest national boundaries.
raise to grade or quality of; improve
To qualify for better jobs, many employees attend evening courses where they can upgrade their skills.
pull up by the roots; remove completely; eradicate; destroy; to pull a plant and its roots out of the ground
The love of liberty is so firmly embedded in men's hearts that no tyrant can hope to uproot it.
coming up; being in the near future; forthcoming; approaching
The management will be glad to mail you its leaflet which contains news of upcoming films.
standing up straight on the feet; erect
When knocked off his feet, the boxer waited till the count of nine before returning to an upright position.
take or draw back or away
Tom is my principal backer; if he withdraws his support, I don't see how I can be elected.
the act of taking money from a bank account, or the amount you take out; act of taking back or drawing out from a place of deposit
My uncle paid for his vacation trip by making a withdrawal from his bank account.
very shy and quiet, and concerned only about your own thoughts; drawn back or removed from easy approach; socially detached; unresponsive; introverted
We talked to the neighbor's youngster and tried to be friendly, but he didn't say anything; he seemed to be withdrawn.
hold back; keep from giving; restrain
Please don't interrupt me. If you have something to say, withhold your comment until I have finished speaking.
money that is taken out of your wages as tax
Your employer is required to deduct a certain amount from your salary as a withholding tax payable to the federal government.
stand up against; hold out; resist; endure
The walls of a dam must be strong enough to withstand tremendous water pressure.
(literally, "not standing against") in spite of; despite
Notwithstanding their advantage of height, the visiting players were unable to beat our basketball team.