music appreciation test 2

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Terms in this set (...)

Instrument
mechanism that generates musical vibrations and transmits them into the air
Timbre
the quality of a sound that distinguishes one voice or instrument from another
Vibrato
small fluctuation (or throbbing) or pitch used as an expressive device to intensify sound
Instrument Families
Aerophones
Cordophones
Membranophones
Idiophones
Aerophones
instruments that produce sound by using air as the primary vibrating means (ex. voices, organ)
Chordophones
instrument that produces sound from vibrating string stretched between two points (ex. strings)
Idiophones
instrument that produces sound from substance of instrument itself being struck, blown, shaken scraped or rubbed
Membranophones
any instrument that produces sound from tightly stretched membranes that can be struck, plucked, subbed, or sung into (setting the skin in vibration)
A capella
choral music perfomed without instrumental accompaniment
chamber choir
small group of singers, who usually perform a capella or with piano accompaniment
soprano
high
alto
women low
tenor
men high
bass
low
Arco
a legato, smooth style of playing by dragging the bow across the strings
Pizzicato
a detatched, staccato style of playing by plucking the string with a finger instead of using the bow
Harmonics
delicate tones in a very high register produced by lightly touching the string at a certain point while the bow is drawn across the string
Mute
small attachment that fits over the bridge, muffling the sound
double/triple/quadruple-stopping
playing two, three or four notes simultaneously by dragging the bow across multiple strings to produce harmony
orchestral strings
violin
viola
cello
double bass
violin
soprano
viola
alto
cello
tenor
double bass
bass
piano
idiophone/cordophone
harpsichord
cordophone
organ
aerophone
celeste
idiophone
Woodwinds
aerophones that do NOT produce sound by buzzing lips in a mouthpiece
reed
flexible strip of cane or metal set into a mouthpiece or the body of an instrument; set in vibration by a stream of air
double reed
a reed consisting of two pieces of cane that vibrate against each other
flute
soprano
no reed to produce sound
oboe
soprano/alto
clarinet
alto/tenor
bassoon
bass
saxophone
alto - not common in symphony orchestra
reed instruments
clarinet and saxophone
double reed
oboe and bassoon
mouthpiece
part of the instrument placed on the lips that serves as a resonator, passing the vibration from the lips to the column of air inside the instrument
valve
valves on brass instruments pressed to change the length of the instrument to reach various nottes on the harmonic series
brass instruments
aerophones that produce sound by buzzing the lips into a mouthpiece
Brass from high to low
trumpet - soprano
french horn - alto
trombone - tenor
tuba - bass

euphonium - tenor
chamber choir
small group of singers, who usually perform a capella or with piano accompaniment
chorus/choir
a group of singers who perform together, usually in parts, with several on each part
opera
music drama that is generally sung throughout, combining the resources of vocal and instrumental music with poetry and drama, acting and pantomime, and scenery and costumes
opera seria
tragic italian opera
opera buffa
italian comic opera
recitative
solo vocal declamation that follows the inflections of the text, often resulting in a disjunct vocal style
aria
lyric song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, generally expressing intense emotion
overture
an introductory movement often presenting melodies from arias to come
librettoe
text or script of an opera, oratorio, cantata, or musical written by a librettist
librettist
author of a libretto
leitmotif
"leading motive" or basic recurring theme, representing a person, object or idea, commonly used in Wagner's opera
gesamtkunstwerk
German for "total artwork"; a term coined by Richard Wagner to descrive the synthesis of all the arts (music, poetry, drama, visual spectacle) in his late operas
register
a specific area (high, middle, low) within the range of a specific instrument or voice
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