PHR Certification

5.0 (25 reviews)
1 / 367
Accounts Payable
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (367)
CapacityTo an operations department, the ability to yield output.Cash flow statementRecord of how much cash is flowing into and out of an organization, including its sources or destinations.CentralizationDegree to which decision-making authority is restricted to higher levels of management in an organization.Code of ethicsPrinciples of conduct within an organization that guide decision making and behavior.Consumer price indexMeasure of the average change over time in the prices paid by consumers for goods and services.ControlTo an operations department, an after-the-fact evaluation of a company's ability to meet its own specifications and its customers' needs.CorrelationMeasure that indicates the relationship between two variables.Cost-benefit analysisRatio of value created to cost of creating that value; allows management to determine the financial impact particular activities and programs have on an organization's profitability.DecentralizationDegree to which decision-making authority is given to lower levels in an organization's hierarchy.DepartmentalizationWay an organization groups jobs to coordinate work.DivestitureSale by a company of an asset that is not performing well, that is not core to the company's business, or that is worth more as a separate entity.Divisional structureOrganizational structure in which segments ae separated by product, customer or market, or region.Due diligenceProcess of conducting an intensive investigation of an organization as one of the first steps in a pending merger or acquisition.Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA)Act that makes it unlawful to intercept messages in transmission, access stored information on electronic communication services, or disclose this information.Enterprise managementIntegrated processes and tools to allow information sharing and process management across functions, sometimes even with external partners, such as suppliers.Environmental scanningProcess that involves a systematic survey and interpretation of relevant data to identify external opportunities and threats.EquityAmount of owners' or shareholders' portion of a business.EthicsSystem of moral principles and values that establish appropriate conduct.Extended organizationAlliance between organizations to create processes and information channels that allow communication and collaboration.Financial ratiosCalculations designed to describe an organization's financial health and performance from various perspectives.Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA)Prohibits American companies from making corrupt payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business.Formula budgetingForm of budgeting in which an average cost is applied to comparable expenses and general funding is changed by a specific amount.Functional structureOrganizational structure that defines departments by what services they contribute to the organization's overall mission.Gantt chartProject planning tool that graphically displays activities of a project in sequential order and plots them against time.Generation XGroup of people born roughly between the years of 1965 - 1980Generation YGroup of people born after 1980.Gross domestic product (GDP)Estimate of the total value of goods and services produced in a country in a given year.Gross profit marginRatio of gross profit to net sales.HR auditProcess to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of HR programs and positions.Human capitalCombined knowledge, skills, and experience of a company's employees.Human resource information system (HRIS)Systematic tool for gathering, storing, maintaining, retrieving, and revising HR data.Human resource management (HRM)Design of formal systems in an organization that ensure the effective and efficient use of human capital to accomplish organizational goals.Income statementStatement comparing revenues, expenses, and profits over a specified period of time, usually a year or a quarter.Incremental budgetingForm of budgeting in which the prior budget is the basis for allocation of funds.InventoryTo an operations department, an organization's major asset after physical buildings and equipment.Key performance indicators (KPIs)Quantifiable measures of performances used to gauge progress toward strategic objectives or agreed standards of performance.LiabilitiesOrganization's debts and other financial obligations.Line unitsWork groups that conduct the major business of an organization.Long-term objectivesSpecific results, to be accomplished in three to five years, that an organization seeks to achieve in pursuing its mission.MarketingProcess of planning, pricing, promoting, and distributing goods and services to satisfy organizational objectives.Matrix structureOrganizational structure that combines departmentalization by division and function to gain the benefits of both.MeanAverage score or value in a set of data.MedianMiddle point above and below which 50% of scores in a set of data lie.Mergers and acquisitions (M&A)Combination of two separate firms either by their joining together as a relative equals (merger) or by one acquiring the other (acquisition).Mid-term objectivesServe a purpose similar to short-term objectives but are completed in one to three years.Mission statementSpecifies what the organization does, who its customers are, and the priorities it has set in pursuing its work.ModeValue that occurs most frequently in a set of data.Net profit marginRatio of net income (gross sales minus expenses and taxes) to net sales.Normal distributionExpected distribution given a random sampling across a large population.OffshoringRelocation of processes or functions from a 'home' country to another country.PercentileSpecific point in a distribution of data that has a given percentage of cases below it.PopulationGroup of persons or objects or a complete set of observations or measurements about which one whishes to draw conclusions.Primary researchInvolves data that is gathered firsthand for a specific evaluation.ProductWhan an organization sells to make a profit.Program evaluation and review technique (PERT) chartProject management tool used to schedule, organize, and coordinate tasks within a project.ProjectSeries of tasks and activities that has a stated goal and objectives, a schedule with defined start and end dates, and a budget that sets limits on the use of monetary and human resources.PromotionTechniques for communicating information about products to consumers.Public comment periodTime allowed for the public to express its views and concerns regarding an action of a regulatory agency.Qualitative analysisBased on research that supplies non-numeric data, for example, through the use of interviews, open-ended survey questions, and other methods that gather attitudes, opinions, and feelings.Quantitative analysisSeeks to obtain easily quantifiable data on a limited number of measurement points.QuorumNumber of members of an organization that have to be present before official business may be conducted.RangeDistance between highest and lowest scores in a set of data.Regression analysisStatistical method used to predict a variable from one or more predictor variables.RegulationRule or order issued by a government agency; often has the force of law.ReliabilityAbility of an instrument to measure consistently.Request for proposal (RFP)Written request asking vendors to propose solutions and prices that fit a customer's requirements.Research and development (R&D)That part of an organization charged with designing and developing products, processes, and services to meet market needs.ResolutionLegislative measure limited in effect to either the Congress or one of its chambers.Return on investment (ROI)Ratio of incremental value (value received minus cost to create value) of an investment to its cost multipled by 100%; measures the economic return on a project or investment.SalesBusiness function responsible for selling an organization's product to the marketplace.SamplePortion of a population used to draw conclusions regarding an entire population.Sarbanes - Oxley Act (SOX)Act that changed corporate governance and reporting standards and underscored board of director's responsibility to help ensure financial accountability, accuracy, and compliance.SchedulingTo an operations department, the act of detailed planning; based upon incoming orders, order history, and forecasts of future demand.Secondary researchUses data already gathered by others and reported in various sources.Short-term objectivesMilestones that must be achieved, usually within six months to one year, in order to reach long-term objectives.Span of controlRefers to the number of individuals who report to a supervisor.Staff unitsWork groups that assist line units by providing specialized services, such as HR.Standard deviationMeasure that indicates how much scores in a set of data are spread out around a mean or average.StandardsFor an operations department, provide the yardstick by which the amount and quality of output are measured.Strategic business managementProcesses and activities used to formulate HR objectives, practices, and policies.Strategic planningProcess that helps an organization focus on how to succeed in the future by evaluating the organization's current status, where it would like to be, and how to get there.StrategiesProvide the direction that enables an organization to achieve its long-term objectives.Supply chainNetwork that delivers products and services from raw materials to end customers through an engineered flow of information, physical distibution, and cash.SWOT analysisProcess for evaluating an organization's current strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.ValidityAbility of an instrument to measure what it is intended to measure.ValuesDescribe what is important to an organization, dictate employee behavior, and create the organization's culture.VetoAction of canceling or postponing a decision or bill.Vision statementVivid, guiding image or an organization's desired future.Zero-based budgetingForm of budgeting that requires that expenditures be justified for each new period.ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA)Amendments to Americans with Disabilities Act covering the definition of individuals regarded as having a disability, mitigating measures, and other rules of construction to guide the analysis of what constitutes a disability.Adverse impactOccurs when the selection rate for an employment decision works to the disadvantage of a protected class; also known as disparate impact.Affirmative action (AA)Practice in which employers make efforts to increase the presence of women, miniorities, covered veterans, and disabled individuals in the workplace and take positive steps to correct their underutilization.Affirmative action plans (AAPs)Written plans that outline an organization's programs, policies, and procedures for proactively ensuring equal opportunity in all aspects of employment, such as recruiting, hiring, training, promoting, and compensating.Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)Act that prohibits discrimination in employment for persons age 40 and over.Albemarle Paper v. Moody1975 court ruling that items used to validate employment requirements must be job related.Alternative staffingUse of alternative recruiting sources and workers who are not regular employees; also know as flexible staffing.Amerians with Disabilities Act (ADA)Act that prohibits discrimination against a qualified individual with a disability because of his/her disability.Aptitude testsTests that measure the general ability or capacity to learn or acquire a new skill.Assessment centersMethod of evaluating candidates using content-valid work samples of a job; typically for managerial positions.Availability analysisAnalysis in which organization considers internal and external availability in determining theoretical availability of minorities and women for established job groups.Behavioral interviewType of interview that focuses on how applicant previously handled real situations.Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)Situation in which religion, sex, or national orgin is reasonably necessary to carry out a particular job function in the normal operations of an organization.City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Company1989 Court ruling that the numerical quota system of Richmond, VA was unconstitutional because the city had not laid the proper groundwork and had not adequately identified or documented discrimination.Civil Rights of 1964First comprehensive US law making it illegal to discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national orgin.Civil Rights Act of 1991Act that expands the possible damage awards available to victims of intentional discrimination to include compensatory and punitive damages; gives plaintiffs in cases of alleged discrimination the right to a jury trial.Closed questionsQuestions that can usually be answered with yes or no.Co-employmentSituation in which an organization shares responsibility and liability for their alternative workers with an alternative staffing supplier; also known as joint employment.Cognitive ability testsTests that assess skills the candidate has already learned.Competency modelSet of competencies that together make up a profile for success for a paticular job.Compliance evaluationEvaluation that requires an organization to provide details on and documentation of its affirmative action plan.Concurrent validityType of criterion-related validity determined by relating the test scores of a group of test takers who take a test (test A) to some other criterion measure (test B) that is administered at the same time.Congressional Accountability ActAct that identifies selected federal employee relations and civil rights legislation enacted by Congress that applies to employees of Congress.Construct validityExtent to which a selection device measures the theoretical construct or trait (e.g., intelligence or mechanical comprehension).Constructive dischargeOccurs when an employer makes working conditions so intolerable that an employee has no choice but to resign.Consumer Credit Protection ActAct that limits the amount of wages that can be garnished or withheld in any one week by and employer to satisfy creditors.Content validityDegree to which an interview, test, or other selection device measures the knowledge, skills, abilities, or other qualifications that are part of the job.Corporate management compliance evaluation (CMCE)Evaluation designed to ensure that qualified minorities and women do not encounter artificial barriers to future advancement into mid-level and senior corporate management.Criterion-related validityRefers to the link between a selection device and job performance.Cultural noiseFailure to recognize responses of a candidate that are socially acceptable rather than factual.Delphi techniqueForecasting technique that progressively collects information from a group without physically assembling the contributors.Directive interviewType of interview in which interviewer poses specific questions to a candidate and keeps control.DisabilityPhysical or mental impairment that substantially limits major life activities.Disparate impactOccurs when the selection rate for an employment decision works to the disadvantage of a protected class; also known as adverse impact.Disparate treatmentOccurs when protected classes are intentiionally treated differently from other employees or are evaluated by different standards.Ellerth v. Burlington Northern IndustriesCourt ruling that distinguished between supervisor harassment that results in tangible employment action and supervisor harassment that does not.Employee Polygraph Protection ActAct that generally prevents employers engaged in or affecting interstate commerce from using lie detector tests either for preemployment screening or during the course of employment, with certain exemptions.Employment brandingProcess of positioning an organization as an 'employer of choice' in the labor market.Employment contractAgreement between an employer and an employee that explains the employment relationship.Employment offerMakes the hiring decision official; should immediately follow the final decision to hire a candidate; formally communicated through an offer letter.Employment practices liability insurance (EPLI)Protects employer against claims by workers that their legal rights as employees of the organization have been violated.Employment-at-willCommon-law principle stating that employers have the right to hire, fire, demote, and promote whomever they choose for any reason unless there is a law or contract to the contrary and employees have the right to quit a job at any time.Essential functionsPrimary job duties that a qualified individual must be able to perform, either with or without accommodation; a function may be considered essential because it is required in a job or because it is highly specialized.e-VerifyInternet-based verification system that allows employers to verify the employment eligibility of their employees regardless of citizenship.Executive search firmsExternal recruiting method; firms seek out candidates, usually for executive, managerial, or professional positions.Exit interviewInterview conducted when an employee is terminating with an organization in which employee is asked to share views on selected issues.ExpatriatesCollective term for employees sent abroad to work in a country other than where they live.Fair and Accurate Credit Transaction Act (FACT)Act that provides some relief to employers using third parties to conduct workplace investigations.Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA)Act that protects privacy of background information and ensures that information supplied is accurate.Faragher v. City of Boca RatonCourt ruling that distinguished between supervisor harassment that results in tangible employment action and supervisor harassment that does not.First - impression errorTyoe of interviewer bias in which interviewer makes snap judgments and lets first impression (either positive or negative) cloud the interview.Fishbowl interviewInteractive type of group interview that helps employer learn how individual interacts with others to solve business - related issues as well as individuals' depth of analytical skills and natural abilities as a leader or team player.Flexible staffingUse of alternative recruiting sources and workers who are not regular employees; also known as alternative staffing.GarnishmentOccurs when a creditor obtains a court order requiring an employer to attach an employee's earnings in order to pay back a debt.GenderRefers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.General Dynamics Land Systems, Inc., v. ClineCase in which Supreme Court held that the Age Discrimination in Employment Act does not protect younger workers, even if they are over age 40, from workplace decisions that favor older workers.Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA)Act that prohibits discrimination against individuals on the basis of their genetic information in both employment and health insurance.Glass ceilingInvisible barrier that blocks minorities and women from attaining senior executive positions.Gratz v. BollingerCase in Supreme Court held that University of Michigan's undergraduate admission program was not sufficiently 'narrowly tailored' to consider race as a factor in admission decisions in order to achieve goal of diverse student body.Griggs v. Duke Power1971 case that recognized adverse impact discrimination.Grutter v. BollingerCase in which Supreme Court held that University of Michigan's law school admission program was sufficiently 'narrowly tailored' to consider race as a factor in admission decisions in order to achieve goal of diverse student body.Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc.Court ruling that established 'reasonable person' standard in a sexual harassment case.Honesty/integrity testsMeasures of applicants' propensity toward undesirable behaviors such as lying, stealing, taking drugs, or abusing alcohol.Host - country nationals (HCNs)Employees working in their own countries; also known as local nationals.Hostile environment harassmentOccurs when sexual or other discriminatory conduct is so severe and pervasive that it interferes with an individual's performance; creates an intimidating, threatening, or humiliating work environment; or perpetuates a situation that affects the employee's psychological well-being.Immigration and Nationality Act (INA)Fundamental body of US immigration law applying to all employers; addresses employment eligibility and employment verification and defines the conditions for the temporary and permanent employment of aliens in the US.Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)Act that provides discrimination against job applicants on the basis of national origin or citizenship; establishes penalties for hiring illegal aliens and requires employers to establish each employee's identity and eligibility to work.Independent contractorsSelf - employed individuals hired on a contract basis for specialized services.InpatriatesEmployees brought in from another country to work in the headquarters country for a specified period.International assigneeAll - encompassing term used to describe anyone on an international assignment.Involuntary terminationWhen employers decide to discharge particular employees for cause (e.g., poor performance, violations of employer policy).JobCollection of employee activities (tasks) and responsibilities.Job analysisSystematic study of jobs to determine what activities (tasks) and responsibilities they include, personal qualifications necessary for performance, conditions under which work is performed, and reporting structure.Job ApplicantAccording to EEO regulations, anyone who expresses an interest in employment, regardless of whether that person meets the employer's minimum qualifications for the job.Job biddingInternal recruiting method that allows employees to indicate an interest in a position before one becomes available.Job competenciesKnowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) and other personal characteristics that work together to produce outstanding performance in a given area of responsibility.Job descriptionSummarizes most important features of a job, including required tasks, knowledge, skills, abilities, responsibilities, and reporting structure; physical requirements must also be included for ADA considerations.Job group analysisPart of affirmative action plan that lists all job titles that comprise each job group having similar content and responsibilities, wage rates, and opportunities for advancement.Job postingInternal recruiting method that allows current employees the chance to respond to announcements of positions.Job specificationSpells out qualifications necessary for an incumbent to be able to perform a job.Jobs for Veterans Act (JVA)Amendment to Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act; deals with discrimination against certain veterans.Johnson v. Santa Clara County Transportation AgencyCourt ruling that endorsed using gender as one factor in an employment decision if underrepresentation is shown and if the affirmative action plan is not a quota system.Joint employmentSituation in which an organization shares responsibility and liability for their alternative workers with an alternative staffing supplier; also known as co-employment.Judgemental forecastsUse of information from past and present to predict future conditions.Kolstad v. American Dental AssociationCase in which Supreme Court held that the availability of punitive damages depends on the motive of the discriminator rather than the nature of the conduct.Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay ActAct that creates a rolling time frame for filing wage discrimination claims and explands plaintiff field beyond employee who was discriminated against.Local nationalsEmployees working in their own countries; also known as host-country nationals (HCNs)McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. GreenCase that established criteria for disparate treatment.McKennon v. Nashville Banner Publishing Co.Case in which Supreme Court held that evidence of misconduct acquired after the decision to terminate cannot free an employer from liability, even if the misconduct would have justified terminating the employee.Meritor Savings Bank v. VinsonCourt ruling that first held that sexual harassment violates Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 regardless of whether it is a quid pro quo or hostile environment harassment.Multiple linear regressionStatistical method that can be used to project future demand; more than one variable is utilized.National originRefers to the country (including those that no longer exist) of one's birth or of one's ancestors' birth.Negative emphasisType of interviewer bias that involves rejecting a candidate on the basis of a small amount of negative information.Nominal group techniqueGroup of individuals who meet face-to-face to forecast ideas and assumptions and prioritize issues.Nondirective interviewType of interview in which interviewer asks open questions and provides general direction but allows applicant to guide process.Offer letterDocument that formally communicates the employment offer, making the hiring decision official.Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Service, Inc.Court ruling that same-gender harassment is actionable under Title VII.Open questionType of question that typically begins with what, where, why, when, or how.Organizational displayPart of affirmative action plan that provides a graphical presentation of the organizational units, including their interrelationships.Organizational exitProcess of managing the way people leave an organization; also referred to as offboarding.Organizational profileProvides a numerical depiction of an establishment's staffing pattern to determine if barriers to equal employment opportunity exist within any organizational unit.Organizational unitAny discrete component of an organization in which there is a level of supervision responsible and accountable for the selection, compensation, etc., of employees within the unit.OutplacementSystematic process by which a laid-off or terminated employee is counseled in the techniques of career self-appraisal and in securing a new job that is appropriate to his or her talents and needs.OutsourcingFlexible staffing option in which an independent organization with expertise in operating a specific function contracts with an organization to assume full operational responsibility for the function.Panel interviewType of interview in which structured questions are spread across a group; individual who is most competent in the relevant area usually asks the question.Parent - country nationals (PCNs)Citizens of an organization's headquarters country who reside and work abroad with the intent of returning to the home country.Patterned interviewType of interview in which interviewer asks each applicant questions that are from the same knowledge, skill, or ability area; also called targeted interview.PayrollingWhen an organization needing help identifies specific people and refers them to a staffing firm, which employs them and assigns them to work at the organization.Pennsylvania State Police v. SudersCase in which Supreme Court ruled on the use of the affirmative defense in a constructive discharge claim for an employer whose supervisors are charged with harassment.PERM (Program Electronic Review Management)Streamlined process for obtaining labor certification for foreign nationals seeking permanent residence through their employment.Personality testsTests that measure person's social interaction skills and patterns of behavior.Placement goalsObjectives or targets in an affirmative action plan that are set when the percentage of minorities or women in a job group is less than reasonably expected given their availability.Polygraph testTest that measures respiration, blood pressure, and perspiration while person is asked a series of questions; outcome is a giagnostic opinion about honesty.Predictive validityType of criterion-related validity; degree to which predictions made by a test are confirmed by the later behavior of test takers.Pregnancy Discrimination ActAct that prohibits discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditionsPrescreening interviewType of interview that is useful when an organization has a high volume of applicants for a job and face-to-face interviews are needed to judge preequalifications factors.Prima facieLatin term for 'on first view' or 'at first appearance' ; in an EEO case, when a plaintiff presents evidence of a prima facie case, the employer must articulate a legitimate, nondiscriminatory reason for its decision.Privacy ActAct that protects the employment records of federal government employees from disclosure without prior authorization.Protected classPeople who are covered under federal or state antidiscrimination law.Psychomotor testsTests that require a candidate to demonstrate a minimum degree of strength, physical dexterity, and coordination in a specialized skill area.Quid pro quo harassmentType of sexual harassment that occurs when an employee is forced to choose between giving in to a superior's sexual demands and forfeiting an economic benefit such as a pay increase, a promotion, or continued employment.QuotaInvolves hiring and promoting a fixed number of individuals based on race, gender, or other protected-class standards.Realistic job preview (RJP)Part of the selection process that provides an applicant with honest and complete information about a job and the work environment.Reasonable accommodationModifying job application process, work environment, or circumstances under which job is performed to enable a qualified individual with a disability to be considered for the job and perform its essential functions.Regents of the University of California v. BakkeCourt ruling that colleges and universities could legitimately consider race as a factor in the admissions process.Rehabilitation ActAct that prohibits discrimination based on physical or mental disabilities.RepatriatesEmployees who have returned home from an international assignment.Repetitive interviewType of interview in which interviewer asks every applicant the same questions; also called a structured interview.ResumeDocument prepared by job candidate (or professional hired by candidate) to highlight candidate's strengths and experienceRetaliatory dischargeResult of an employer punishing an employee for engaging in activities protected by the law (e.g., filing a discrimination charge, opposing unlawful employer practices).RetentionAbility to keep talented employees in an organization.Ricci v. DeStefanoSupreme Court ruling that employers may violate Title VII when they engage in race-conscious decision making to address adverse impact unless they can demonstrate a 'strong basis in evidence' that, had they not taken action, they would have been liable under a disparate impact theory.School Board of Nassau v. ArlineSupreme Court ruling that persons with contagious diseases could be covered by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.School-to-work programsAllow organizations to partner with communities and schools to help develop the skilled workforce they will need for the future.SelectionProcess of hiring the most suitable candidate for a vacant position.Selection interviewInterview designed to probe areas of interest to interviewer in order to determine how well a job candidate meets the needs of the organization.Sexual harassmentUnwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.Simple linear regressionProjection of future demand based on a past relationship; involves a single variable.SimulationsRepresentations of real situations; give organizations the opportunity to speculate as to what would happen if certain courses of action were pursued.Situational interviewType of interview in which interviewer asks questions designed to elicit stories and examples that demonstrate the applicant's skills and qualifications.Skill banksComputerized talent or skill inventories that can furnish a list of qualified people.Skill tracking systemsComputerized talent or skill inventories that can furnish a list of qualified people.Smith v. Jackson, MississippiCase in which Supreme Court held that Age Discrimination in Employment Act authorizes recovery on a disparate impact theory but with narrower scope than that provided under Title VII.Social mediaCollectively describes a variety of online Internet technology platforms and communities that people use to communicate and share information and resources.St. Mary's Honor Center v. HicksCourt ruling that Title VII plaintiff must show that discrimination was the real reason for an employer's actions.StaffingHR function that identifies orgnizational human capital needs and attempts to provide an adequate supply of qualified individuals for jobs in an organization.State (public) employment agenciesAgencies that provide employee screening, testing, and referral at no cost to the employer.StereotypingType of interview bias that involves forming generalized opinions about how people of a given gender, religion, or race appear, think, act, feel, or respond.Stress interviewType of interview in which interviewer assumes an aggressive posture to see how a candidate responds to stressful situations.Structured interviewType of interview in which interviewer asks every applicant the same questions; also called a repetitive interview.Substance abuse testsMeasures intended to ensure a drug-free workplace.Succession planningA talent management strategy to help identify and foster the development of high-potential employees.Targeted interviewType of interview in which interviewer asks each applicant questions that are from the same knowledge, skill, or ability area; also called patterned interview.Taxman v. Board of Education of PiscatawayCourt ruling that nonremedial affirmative action plan cannot form the basis for deviating from the antidiscrimination mandate of Title VII.Team interviewType of interview used in situations where the position relies heavily on team cooperation; supervisors, subordinates, and peers are usually part of the process.Third - country nationals (TCNs)Employees who are citizens of countries other than where they work or where the organization's headquarters resides.Trend and ratio analysesUse of statistics to determine whether relationships exist between two variables.TurnoverAnnualized formula that tracks number of separations and total number of workforce employees per month.Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection ProceduresProcedural document designed to assist employers in complying with federal regulations prohibiting discrimination.Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Ricghts Act (USERRA)Act that protects the employment, reemployment, and retention rights of persons who serve or have served in the uniformed services.United Steelworkers v. WeberCourt ruling dealing with reverse discrimination charges; upheld that Title VII allows for voluntary, private, race-conscious programs aimed at eliminating racial imbalance in traditionally segregated job categories.Vicarious liabilityLegal doctrine under which a party can be held liable for the wrongful actions of another party.Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act (VEVRAA)Act that prohibits discrimination against certain veterans.Washington v. DavisCourt ruling that dealt with job testing and discrimination.Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) ActAct that requires some employers to give a minimum of 60 days' notice if a plant is to close or if mass layoffs will occur.Workforce analysisFacilitates a systematic approach to anticipate human captial needs and data HR professionals can use to ensure that appropriate knowledge, skills, and abilities will be available when needed to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.Workforce PlanningProcess an organization uses to analyze its workforce to determine steps it must take to prepare for future needs; strategically aligns an organization's human capital with its business direction.Yield ratiosRatios that can help quantify recruitment efforts.ADDIE modelFive-step instructional design process that governs the development of human resource development programs.AnalysisLevel of learning characterized by understnading information to the level of being able to break it down and explain how it fits together.AndragogyStudy of how adults learn.ApplicationLevel of learning characterized by ability to use learned information in a new situation.ApprenticeshipRelates to technical skills training; often a partnership between employers and unions.AptitudeAbility to learn information or acquire a skill.Asynchronous learningType of e-learning in which participants access information at different times and in different places.Auditory learnersPeople who learn best by relying on their sense of hearing.Career planningActions and activities that individuals perform in order to give direction to their work life.Cause-and-effect diagramDiagram that maps out a list of factors that are thought to affect a problem or a desired outcome.Central tendency errorError that occurs when an appraiser rates all employees within a narrow range, regardless of differences in actual performance.Check sheetsSimple visual tools used to collect and analyze data.CompetenciesSet of behaviors encompassing skills, knowledge, abilities, and personal attributes that are critical to successful work accomplishment.ComprehensionLevel of learning characterized by ability to translate or interpret information.Contrast errorError that occurs when an employee's rating is based on how his or her performance compares to that of another employee rather than objective standards.Control chartChart that illustrates variations from normal in a situation over time.CopyrightForm of protection provided by the US government to authors of 'original works' to exclude others from printing or otherwise duplicating, distributing, or vending copies of their literary, artistic, and other creative expressions.Copyright ActAct that defines the protection provided to authors of 'original works' to exclude others from printing or otherwise duplicating, distributing, or vending copies of their literary, artistic, and other creative expressions, including through the various means of technology.Core competenciesSkills, knowledge, and abilities that employees must possess in order to successfully perform job functions that are essential to business operations.Decreasing returnsType of learning curve in which the amount of learning or skill level increases rapidly at first and then the rate of improvement slows.Developmental activitiesActivities that focus on preparing employees for future responsibilities while increasing their capacity to perform their current jobs.Distance learningProcess of delivering educational or instructional programs to locations away from a classroom or site.DiversityDifferenes in characteristics of people; can involve personality, work style, race, age, ethnicity, gender, religion, education, functional level at work, etc.Diversity trainingTraining designed to inform senior management and staff about diversity and to develop concrete skills that will facilitate enhanced productivity and communications among all employees.Dual career laddersCareer development programs that identify meaningful career paths for professional and technical people whose preference may be outside traditional management roles.e-learningDelivery of formal and informal training and educational materials, processes, and programs via the use of electronic media.Emotional intelligence (EI)Ability of an individual to be sensitive to and understanding of the emotions of others and to manage his or her own emotions and implulses.EvaluationLevel of learning characterized by ability to make judgements.Executive coachingCoaching typically conducted by a third-party vendor to support managers in mastering the fundatmental principles and practices for achieving extraordinary results and empowering staff success.ExpatriationProcess of sending employees abroad and supporting their ability to adapt to cultural changes and complete their international assignment.External coachingCoaching typically available to professional, exempt, and/or high-potential employees that is done in a private and confidential relationship with a trained or certified consultant/coach.Extrinsic rewardsRewards such as pay, benefits, bonuses, promotions, achievement awards, time off, more freedom and autonomy, special assignments, etc.Fair useProvision of Copyright Act that allows the use of copyrighted work in certain circumstances.Fast-track programsCareer development programs that involve identifying a pool of potential leaders and rapidly increasing their leadership skill development.GoalClear statement, usually in one sentence, of the purpose and intent of human resource development program.Halo effectOccurs when an employee is extremely competent in one area and is therefore rated high in all categories.High-context cultureSociety or group where people have close connections over a long period of time and where many aspects of behavior are not made explicit, because most members know what to do and think from years of interaction.HistogramGraphic representation of the distribution of a single type of measurement; data is represented by a series of rectangles of varying heights.Horn effectOccurs when an employee receives an overall low rating because of one weakness.Human resource development (HRD)Set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the necessary skills and/or competencies to meet current and future job demands.Increasing returnsType of learning curve in which progress is initially slow because basics are being learned but then performance takes off after the initial learning phase.Internal coachingConsists of ongoing meetings between supervisors and employees to discuss the employee's career goals.Intrinsic rewardsMeaningful work, good feedback on performance, autonomy, and other factors that lead to high levels of satisfaction in the job.Job enlargementBroadening the scope of a job by expanding the number of different tasks to be performed.Job enrichmentIncreases the depth of a job by adding responsibility for planning, organizing, controlling, and evaluation.Job rotationMovement between different jobs.Kinesthetic learnersPeople who learn best through hands-on approach; also called tactile learners.KnowledgeLevel of learning characterized by ability to recall specific facts.Knowledge management (KM)Process of creating, acquiring, sharing, and managing knowledge to augment individual and organizational performance.LeadershipAbility of an individual to influence a group or another individual toward the achievement of goals and results.Learning management system (LMS)System that holds course content information and has the capability of tracking and managing employee course registrations, career development, and other employee development activities.Learning objects (LOs)Learning elements that may be reused in a variety of contexts; examples include animated graphics, job aids, and print modules.Learning organizationOrganization characterized by a capability to adapt to changes in environment.Learning stylesWays individuals learn and process ideas.Leniency errorsErrors that are the result of appraisers who don't want to give low scores.Low-context cultureSociety where people tend to have many connections but of shorter duration and where behavior and beliefs may need to be spelled out explicitly so that those coming into the cultural environment know how to behave.ManagementDirecting day-to-day organizational operations.MentoringDevelopmentally oriented relationship between two individuals.MotivationFactors that initiate, direct, and sustain human behavior over time.Needs assessmentProcess by which an organization's needs are identified in order to help the organization accomplish its objectives; also called needs analysis.ObjectivesResults that participants will be able to perform at the end of a human resource development program.OnboardingProcess of new employee assimilation into the organization, which often lasts up to six months or a year.On-the-job training (OJT)Training provided to employees at the work site utilizing demonstration and performance of job tasks.Organizational cultureShared attitudes and perceptions in an organization.Organizational development (OD)Process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and the well-being of its members through planned interventions.Organizational learningCertain types of learning activities or processes that may occur at any one of several levels in an organization.OrientationInitial phase of employee training that covers organizational goals and strategies, job responsibilities, and organizational policies.Outplacement programsPrograms designed to assist displaced employees in finding jobs and adjusting to change.Pareto chartVertical bar graph on which bar height reflects frequency or impact of causes.PedagogyStudy of the education of children.Performance appraisalProcess that measures the degree to which an employee accomplishes work requirements.Performance managementProcess of maintaining or improving employee job performance through the use of performance assessment tools, coaching, and counseling as well as providing continuous feedback.Performance standardsExpectations of management translated into behaviors and results that employeees can deliver.Pilot programsHuman resource development programs offered initially in a controlled environment with a segment of the target audience.Plateau curveType of learning curve in which learning is fast at first but then flattens out with no apparent progress.Plateaued careerCareer state of employees who are no longer considered promotable.Primacy errorOccurs when an appraiser gives more weight to an employee's earlier performance and discounts recent occurrences.Process-flow analysisDiagram of the steps involved in a process.Public domainStatus of a work when copyright protection ends; in general, copyright protection covers the life of the author plus 70 years.Regency errorError that occurs when an appraiser gives more weight to recent occurrences and discounts an employee's earlier performance during the appraisal period.RepatriationReintegrating employees into their home-country operations following an international assignment.Replacement planning"Snapshot" assessment of the availability of qualified backup for key positions.Reusable learning objects (RLOs)Learning elements that may be reused in a variety of contexts; examples include animated graphics, job aids, and print modules.Scatter diagramIllustration that depicts possible relationships between two variables.Six SigmaDisciplined, data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects.S-shaped curveType of learning curve in which learning occurs in a series of increasing and decreasing returns; usually seen when an employee is attempting to learn a difficult task that also requires specific insight.StrictnessError that occurs when an appraiser believes standards are too low and inflates the standards in an effort to make them meaningful.Subject matter expert (SME)Person who is well versed in the content of a human resource development program.Synchronous learningType of e-learning in which participants interacts together in real time.SynthesisLevel of learning at whch the learner is able to respond to new situations and determine trouble-shooting techniques and solutions.Talent managementDevelopment and integration of HR processes that attract, develop, engage, and retain the knowledge, skills, and abilities of employees that will meet current and future business needs.Theory of constraints (TOC)Systems management philoshophy that states that every organization is hindered by constraints that come from its internal policies.Title VII, Civil Rights Act of 1964Prohibits discrimination or segregation based on race, color, national origin, religion, and sex in all terms and conditions of employement.Total quality management (TQM)Strategic, integrated management system for achieving customer satisfaction that involves all managers and employees and uses quantitative methods to continuously improve an organization's processes.TrainabilityReadiness to learn, combining students' level of ability and motivation with their perceptions of the work environment.TrainingProcess of providing knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) specific to a task or job.Transactional leadershipLeadership style that offers the promise of reward or the threat of discipline to motivate employees.Transfer of trainingEffective and continuing on-the-job application of knowledge and skills gained during a learning experience.Transformational leadershipLeadership style that motivates employees by inspiring them to join in a mutually satisfying achievement.Visual learnersPeople who learn best by relying on their sense of sight.