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SOCI-Unit 4-Chapters 10 & 11
Terms in this set (135)
The study of population.
The level of reproduction in a society.
Influenced by marriage and contraception.
The death rate of a population.
Components of Population
Educated at Cambridge University
Criticized the church and slavery
"Essays on the Principle of Population", his controversial legacy.
"The world's population was growing more rapidly than its food supply."
Food supply increases in arithmetic progression whereas population expands by a geometric progression.
Advocated population control.
Proposed postponing marriage rather than using birth control, which was not sanctioned by the church.
Criticized strongly by Karl Marx.
Criticized Thomas Malthus' views of population control.
Believed the nature of economic relations in Europe's industrial society's to be the central problem.
Believed only capitalism was the cause of social ills.
"There is no special relationship between world population and supply of resources."
Linked overpopulation to the unequal distribution of resources.
The belief that the population is outgrowing resources but that contraception and birth control should be uses as a means of regulating population increases.
Condemnation of developed nations for consuming disproportionately large share of world resources despite low birthrate is based on Marx's views of industrialized societies.
Birth control and sensible use of resources are essential responses to rising world population.
An enumeration, or counting, of a population.
The primary mechanism for collecting population information.
United States requires one every 10 years to determine congressional representation.
Records of births, deaths, marriages, and divorces that are gathered through a registration system maintained by governmental units.
Employ skills and techniques such as questionnaires, interviews, and sampling to investigate populations.
Precision depends on the accuracy of a series of estimates that demographers must make.
1. Must determine past population trends and establish a base population as of the date for which the forecast begins.
2. Birthrates and death rates must be established, along with estimates of future fluctuations.
3. Must consider migration.
Elements of Demography
Total Fertility Rate
Infant Mortality Rate
The number of live births per 1,000 population in a given year.
Provides information on the actual reproductive patterns of a society.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children born alive to any woman, assuming that she conforms to current fertility rates.
Number is higher on average in developing countries.
The number of deaths per 1,000 population in a given year.
Infant Mortality Rate
The number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births in a given year.
Serves as an important indicator of a society's level of health care.
Reflects prenatal nutrition, delivery procedures, and infant screening measures.
A useful indicator of future population growth.
The median number of years a person can be expected to live under current mortality conditions.
Reported at birth.
The difference between births and deaths, plus the difference between immigrants and emigrants per 1,000 population.
Those who enter a country to establish a permanent residence.
Those who leave a country permanently.
A unit of social organization, either spacial or political, that gives people a sense of belonging.
Earlier ones were much more dependent on the physical environment and much less able to alter their environment to their advantage.
In which people cultivate food rather than merely hunt and forage.
Led to dramatic changes in human social organization.
Allowed more stable and enduring communities.
Only comprised of a few thousand people living within its borders.
Characterized by a relatively closed class system and limited mobility.
Status based on ascribed characteristics.
Education was limited to members of the elite.
All residents relied on 100,000 farmers.
Factors Restricting Urbanization
1. Reliance on Animal Power (humans and beasts) as a source of energy for economic production
2. Modest levels of surplus produced by the agricultural sector.
3. Problems in transportation and storage of food and other goods.
4. Hardship of migration to the city.
5. Dangers of city life
6. Lack of a sophisticated social organization
Began in the 18th Century.
Focused on the application of non animal sources of power to labor tasks.
Had a wide range of effects on people's lifestyles and structures of communities.
There Factory System
Developed during the Industrial Revolution.
Led to a refined division of labor.
Created new jobs that produced a complex set of relationships among workers.
Based on different principles of social organization than preindustrial cities.
More populous than preindustrial cities.
Open class system.
Formal education developed.
A city in which global finance and the electronic flow of information dominate the economy.
Emerged in the latter part of the 20th century.
Production is decentralized and takes place outside of urban centers.
Control is centralized in multinational corporations whose influence transcends urban and national boundaries.
Social change is constant.
Economic and social restructuring occurs every decade.
Cities are forced into competition with each other for economic opportunities.
Argued that a relatively large and permanent settlement leads to distinctive patterns of social behavior.
Coined the term "urbanism".
Distinctive social behavior found in large and permanent settlements.
Leads to insensitivity to events around people and restricts attention to the primary groups to which people are emotionally attached.
Factors of Urbanism
1. Size of Population
2. Population Density
3. Heterogeneity (variety) of the Population
Consequences of Urbanization
Perpetuation of the Poor
An area of study that is concerned with the interrelationships between people and their spatial setting and physical environment.
Stresses the trade-offs inherent in every decision that alters the environment.
Focuses on the relationships between people and their environment as they emerge in urban areas.
Examines social change in cities.
Emphasizes that different elements in urban areas contribute to social stability.
Tends to avoid examining the social forces, largely economic in nature, that have guided economic growth.
Park and Burgess
Ecologists who concentrated on city life but drew on the approaches used by ecologists in studying plant and animal communities.
Ecologist who devised the concentric-zone theory in the 1920's.
A theory for describing land use in industrial cities.
A city grows over time by spreading outward from the center.
The central business district is in the center.
Zones devoted to other uses surround the urban center.
As urban growth proceeds, each zone moves farther from the central business district.
Tends to understate or ignore tensions in metropolitan areas.
Criticized for its failure to address issues of gender, race, and class.
Their creation is a social process, not just nature alone.
Based on those who possess the most wealth and power.
Harris and Ullman
Presented the multiple-nuclei theory.
A metropolitan area may have many centers of development, each of which reflects a particular urban need or activity.
All urban growth does not radiate outward from a central business district.
Exemplified by the rise of suburban shopping malls.
Coined the term "edge cities".
Communities that grew from the outskirts of major metropolitan areas and are economic and social centers with identities all their own.
Qualify as independent cities rather than as large suburbs.
Conflict Perspective on Metropolitan Growth
Communities are human creations that reflect people's needs, choices, and decisions- though some people have more influence than others over those decisions.
New Urban Sociology
An approach drawing on conflict theory that considers the interplay of local, national, and worldwide forces and their effect on local space, with special emphasis on the impact of global economic activity.
Draws on Immanuel Wallerstein's world systems analysis.
Considers urbanization from a global perspective.
"Good Business Climate"
A euphemism for hefty state and local government subsidies and antilabor policies, according to new urban sociologists.
World Systems Analysis
Certain industrialized nations hold a dominant position at the core of the global economic system.
Poor developing countries occupy the periphery of the global economy, where they are controlled and exploited by core nations.
Theory devised by Immanuel Wallerstein.
A "state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and note merely the absence of disease and infirmity", as defined by the preamble of the World Health Organization's 1946 constitution.
The "healthy" represents an ideal rather than a precise condition.
Health and illness are socially constructed.
Functionalist Perspective on Health and Wellness
Illness must be controlled so that too many people are not released from their responsibilities at any one time.
An overly broad definition of illness would disrupt the workings of a society.
"Sickness" requires that one take on a temporary social role.
The Sick Role
Societal expectations about the attitudes and behavior of a person viewed as being ill.
1. Exempted from normal responsibilities
2. Do not suffer blame for their condition
3. Obligated to get well, including seeking care
Outlined the behavior required of people considered "sick".
Physicians function as "gatekeepers" for the sick role.
The ill person becomes dependent on physicians for rewards such as diagnoses, treatments and excused absences.
The doctor-patient relationship is similar to that of a parent-child: the physician helps the patient to enter society as a full and functioning adult.
Criticisms of the Sick Role
1. Patients' judgments may be related to gender, age, social class, and ethnic group.
2. Sick role may only be applicable to shorter illnesses rather than longer diseases and ailments
3. Simple factors affect a person's willingness to accept the sick role.
Conflict Perspective of Health and Wellness
Medicine is an institution of social control.
Expanse of expertise works as a regulating mechanism.
Society hopes for "miracle cures"
Once a problem is viewed using a "medical model", it becomes more difficult for "common people" to join the discussion and exert influence on decision making.
Glaring inequities exist in health care:
1. The poor and the rural areas tend to be underserved
2. Medical services concentrate where people are wealthy
Dramatic differences in infant mortality rates reflect unequal distribution of health care resources based on the wealth or poverty of various nations.
Likened medicine of today to state religion of yesterday: it officially approved monopoly of the right to define health and illness and to treat illness.
Medicalization of Society
The growing role of medicine as a major institution of social control.
Medicine manifests its social control by:
1. Expanding its domain of expertise
2. Retaining its absolute jurisdiction over health care procedures.
Medical experts become influential in proposing and assessing relevant public policies.
The immigration to industrialized nations of skilled workers, professionals, and technicians who are desperately needed in their home countries.
Interactionist Perspective on Health and Wellness
Patients are not passive: they actively seek out medical care.
Micro-Level study of roles played by health care professionals and patients.
Particularly interested in how physicians learn how to play their role.
Patients play an active role in health care by failing to follow a physician's advice.
Brenda L. Beagan
"The technical language students learn in medical school becomes the basis for the script they follow as novice physicians. The white coat is their costume.
Found that many medical students struggle to project the appearance of competence they think their role demands.
Labeling Perspective on Health and Wellness
Suggests that the designation "healthy" or "ill" involves social definition by others.
Health care professionals have the power to define certain people as "sick".
Labels associated with illness reshape how others treat us and how we view ourselves.
Society attaches consequences to labels associated with "less than perfect" physical and mental health.
We can choose to view life experiences as illnesses or not.
The "disease" that explained the continued efforts of enslaved Africans to escape from their White masters.
New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal
Suggested the remedy for drapetomania was to treat slaves kindly.
Common Themes in Sociological Perspectives on Health and Wellness
1. Any person's health or illness is more than an organic condition: they are sociological occurrences as well.
2. Health is a group and societal concern.
The study of the distribution of disease, impairment, and general health status across a population.
The scientific study of epidemics.
Contemporary practitioners have broader scope of concentration.
Takes on the role of tracking bioterrorism.
Draws on the work of a wide variety of scientists and researchers.
The number of new cases of a specific disorder occurring within a given population during a stated period, usually a year.
The total number of a specific disorder that exist at a given time.
Usually a higher number than incidence.
When incidence figures are presented as rates, or as the number of reports of a disorder per 100,000 people.
Reveal that a specific disease occurs more frequently among one segment of a population than another.
Affected by social class, race, ethnicity, gender, and age.
The incidence of death in a given population.
Class Factors of Morbidity and Mortality Rates
1. Crowded living conditions
2. Substandard housing
3. poor diet
5. poor education
6. financial strains
7. Exposure to the environment and pollution
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)
Enacted by Congress in 2010.
Began in 2014.
The most significant health care reform since passage of Medicare in 1965.
Helps people who are sick or lost a job to afford medical care.
Ethnic Factors of Morbidity and Mortality Rates
Poor economic and environmental conditions.
Inferior medical treatment.
Race is more oppressive than class: white people can easy escape pollution centers, minorities tend to be restricted in their residential mobility.
Some ethnic cultures perpetuate beliefs that prevent people from seeking medical help.
Suggests that racial tensions contribute to the medical problems of Blacks.
Stress from racial prejudice and discrimination helps to explain higher rates of hypertension found among African Americans compared to Whites.
Twice as common in Blacks as in Whites.
Believed to be a critical factor in Blacks' high mortality rates.
A form of holistic health care and healing.
Influences how one approaches health care and defines illness.
Common among Hispanics.
Gender Factors Gender Morbidity and Mortality Rates
Women experience a higher prevalence of illnesses, but they tend to live longer.
Women have higher chances of diabetes.
Men have higher chances of parasitic diseases.
Explanations For Women's Longevity:
1. Lower rate of smoking
2. Lower consumption of alcohol
3. Lower rate of employment in dangerous occupations
4. More likely to seek treatment
5. More likely to be diagnosed
Age Factors of Morbidity and Mortality Rates
1. Especially vulnerable to mental health problems
2. 5 Times more likely to use health services than young people
The significant rise in the earth's surface temperatures that occurs when industrial gases like carbon dioxide turn the planet's atmosphere into a virtual greenhouse.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Trap heat in the lower atmosphere.
The Kyoto Protocol
Intended to reduce global emissions of heat-trapped gases, which can contribute to global warming and climate change.
190 countries have signed the accord.
The United States has failed to ratify it.
Opponents argue that it would place the nation at a disadvantage in the global marketplace.
Believe the pressure of world population growth to be the central factor in environmental deterioration.
Argue that population control is essential in preventing widespread starvation and environmental decay.
Believes the primary cause of environmental ills to be the increasing use of technological innovations that are destructive to the environment.
"Everything is connected to everything else."
Shifts the focus away from affluent consumers as the cause of environmental troubles.
A capitalist system creates a "treadmill of production".
An approach that emerged in the 1980's that focuses on the alignment of environmentally favorable practices with economic self-interest through constant adaptation and restructuring.
Occurs on both the macro and micro levels.
The Warren Country Struggle
A transformative moment in contemporary environmentalism.
500 African Americans participated in a 6-week protest against a hazardous waste landfill in North Carolina.
The beginning of the environmental justice movement.
A legal strategy based on claims that racial minorities and the lower classes are subjected disproportionately to environmental hazards.
"The new Civil Rights of the 21st Century."
Globalization of the Environmental Justice Movement
1. Similar patterns in the locations of hazardous waste sites in various countries
Occupy Wall Street
A movement that began in Vancouver, Canada, after the editors of 'Adbusters' suggested a protest against "corporate rule" in lower Manhattan.
Movement began on September 17th, 2011.
2,000 protesters gathered in New York City.
Americans who have lost their jobs, their homes, or their retirement savings when the stock market collapsed in 2008.
Significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture.
1. Physical environment
4. social inequality
5. collective efforts of individuals
An organized collective activity to bring about or resist fundamental change in an existing group or society.
The most powerful source of social change.
Have had a dramatic impact on the course of history and the evolution of social structure.
Imply the existence of conflict.
Historically, have focused on economic issues.
Modern movements do not have social class roots.
Recognized the special importance of social movements. Defined them as "collective enterprises to establish a new order of life."
Functionalist Perspective on Social Movements
Social movements contribute to the formation of public opinion.
Explanations for Mobilization of Social Movements
1. The Relative Deprivation Approach
2. The Resource Mobilization Approach
The conscious feeling of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities.
"Life isn't as good as you hoped it would be."
Characterized by scarcity rather than a complete lack of necessities.
Requirements for Discontent to be Channeled into a Social Movement
1. Feeling of relative deprivation
2. People feel they have a right to their goals.
3. Disadvantaged people feel they cannot attain their goals through conventional means.
Criticisms of the Relative Deprivation Approach
1. Perception of deprivation may not always be necessary before people are moved to act.
2. Fails to explain why certain feelings of deprivation do not lead to a collective effort to reshape society.
The ways in which a social movement utilizes resources.
- Political influence
- Access to the media
- Marshalling resources
That quality of an individual that sets him or her apart from ordinary people, according to Max Weber.
Can fade abruptly, which accounts for the fragility of certain social movements.
Recognized the importance of recruitment.
Called on workers to become aware of their oppressed status and develop a shared class consciousness.
The development of a social movement requires leaders to sharpen the awareness of the oppressed.
Attitudes that do not reflect workers' objective position, according to Marx.
Gender in Social Movements
An important element in understanding social movements.
Gender bias causes the real extent of women's influence to be overlooked
New Social Movement
An organized collective activity that addresses values and social identities as well as improvements in quality of life.
Involved in developing collective identities.
Have complex agendas that go beyond a single issue and even across national boundaries.
Educated, middle-class people are significantly represented.
Do not view government as their ally.
Do not typically seek to overthrow government.
Criticize, protest, or harass public officials.
Members show little inclination to accept established authority.
Take on a broader, global perspective on social and political activism.
Environmental & Anti-Nuclear Power Movements
Activists present their own experts to counter those of government or big business, an example of the characteristic of social movements refuting authority.
Theories Social Change
1. Evolutionary Theory
2. Equilibrium Model
Evolutionary Theory of Social Change
Society is viewed as moving in a definite direction.
Stresses a continuing progression of successive life forms.
Encouraged sociobiologists to investigate the behavioral links between humans and other animals.
Influenced human ecology.
Founder of sociology.
Evolutionary theorist of social change.
Saw human societies as moving forward in their thinking from mythology to the scientific method.
Maintained that society progressed from simple to more complex forms of social organization.
Functionalist Perspective on Social Change
Focuses on what maintains a system.
Leading proponent of functionalist theory.
Viewed society as being in a natural state of equilibrium.
Viewed strikes and riots as temporary disruptions in the status quo rather than significant alterations in social structure.
Society tends toward a state of stability or balance
Parson's Equilibrium Model
As changes occur in one part of society, adjustments must be made in other parts. If adjustments are not made, society's equilibrium will be threatened.
Inevitable Processes of Social Chang
Identified by Parsons based on evolutionary theory.
2. Adaptive Upgrading
4. Value Generalization
All stress consensus.
The increasing complexity of social organization.
Social Institutions become more specialized.
Groups that were once excluded because of factors such as gender, race, and social class background becoming part of society.
The development of new values that tolerate and legitimate a greater range of activities.
Conflict Perspective on Social Change
Change has crucial significance since it is needed to correct social injustices and inequalities.
According to Marx, society proceeds through a series of stages, each of which exploits a class of people.
In which Karl Marx predicted a socialist revolution need by the proletariat, resulting in the final stage of development: a classless communist society, or "community of free individuals".
Marxist Theory on Social Change
Appealing in that it does not restrict people to a passive role in responding to inevitable cycles or changes in material culture.
Offers a tool to those who wish to seize control of the historical process and gain their freedom from injustice.
Conflict is a normal and desirable aspect of social change.
Change must be encouraged as a means of eliminating social inequality.
Conflict sociologist who noted the contrast between the functionalist perspective's emphasis on stability and the conflict perspective's focus on change reflects the contradictory nature of society.
Both approaches are compatible.
Observed a crucial sequence of events that most observers had missed.
Argued that Soviet expansionism had resulted in an over-extension of resources.
Predicted that the coincidence of social crises on several frontiers would precipitate the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Suggests that nations in the middle of a geographic region tend to fragment into smaller units over time.
President of the American Sociological Association in 1997.
Cautioned the need to move beyond restrictive models of social change.
Advocated the "chaos theory".
Saw erratic events as an integral part of change.
Noted that upheavals and major chaotic shifts do occur and that sociologists must learn to predict them.
Coined the term "vested interests"
Those people or groups who will suffer in the event of social change.
William F. Ogburn
Distinguished between material culture and Nonmaterial culture.
Nonmaterial culture must respond to changes in material culture.
The period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions.
Rebels of the Industrial Revolution who raided factories and destroyed machinery in 1811.
Those who are wary of technological innovations and who question the incessant expansion of industrialization, the increasing destruction of the natural and agrarian world, and the "throw-it-away" mentality of contemporary capitalism.
Those who resist technological devices that have become part of our daily lives.
Cultural information about the ways in which the material resources of the environment may be used to satisfy human needs and desires.
Electronic Communications Privacy Act
Outlawed the surveillance of telephone calls except with the permission of both the U.S. attorney general and a federal judge.
USA PATRIOT Act
Relaxed existing legal checks on surveillance by law enforcement officers.
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