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Chapter 6 Proteins
Terms in this set (57)
Compounds in your body
that consist of numerous amino acids
and are found in all living cells. A chain with more than 50 amino acids.
amino acid chain contains fewer
than 50 amino acids linked together
polypeptides (more than 10)
The building blocks of protein. Amino acids contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. All amino acids are composed of an acid group, an amine group, and a unique side chain
The COOH group that is part of every amino acid; also called the carboxyl group.
The nitrogencontaining part (NH2) of an amino acid.
The side group of an
amino acid that provides it with its
unique qualities; also referred to as the
The bonds that connect
amino acids, created when the
acid group of one amino acid is joined
with the nitrogen-containing amine
group of another amino acid.
essential amino acids
The nine amino acids that the body cannot synthesize; they must be obtained through
nonessential amino acids
The 11 amino acids that the body can
conditionally essential amino
Nonessential amino acids that
become essential if the body cannot
make them, such as during bouts of
substance that is converted
to another substance in the
The alteration of a
protein's shape, which changes the
structure and function of the protein.
1. In the stomach, acidic juices
denature the protein and activate
the enzyme pepsin, which breaks
the protein into shorter strands.
2. These strands enter the small
intestine. Pepsin is inactivated.
Other enzymes further break
down the polypeptide strands
into tripeptides and dipeptides
and single amino acids.
3. These protein remnants are
absorbed through the small
intestine lining. They are further
broken down to single amino
acids, which enter the blood
and travel directly to the liver
4. The liver uses some of the
amino acids to make new
proteins, or glucose, or for other
purposes. Other amino acids will
pass through the liver and return
to the blood to be picked up and
used by the cells.
amino acid pools
A limited supply of amino acids stored in your blood and cells and used to build new
The continual process of degrading and synthesizing protein.When the daily amount of degraded protein is equivalent to the amount that is synthesized, you are in
A nitrogen-containing waste product that is excreted in urine.
The blueprint in cells that stores
all genetic information. DNA remains
in the nucleus of the cell and directs
the synthesis of proteins.
A DNA segment that codes for a
A molecule that carries out the
orders of DNA.
messenger RNA (mRNA)
A type of RNA that copies the genetic information encoded in DNA and carries it out of the nucleus of the cell to synthesize
transfer RNA (tRNA)
RNA that collects the amino acids
within the cell that are needed to make
a specific protein.
A blood disorder caused by a genetic defect in the development of hemoglobin. Sickle-cell anemia causes the red blood cells to distort into a sickle shape and can
damage organs and tissues.
A ropelike, fibrous protein that is the most abundant protein in your body
The most abundant
tissue type in the body. Made up
primarily of collagen, it supports and
connects body parts as well as providing
protection and insulation.
Substances that act as catalysts
and speed up reactions.
Protein- or lipid-based
chemical messengers that initiate or direct
a specific action. Insulin, glucagon,
and estrogen are examples of
The equal distribution
of water throughout your body and
within and between cells.
The accumulation of excess
fluid in the spaces surrounding your
cells, which causes swelling of the body
Substances, often vitamins,
that are needed by enzymes to
perform many chemical reactions in
7.4 is good
7.35 = coma
7.45 = alkalosis/ convulsions
Proteins that carry lipids (fat and cholesterol), oxygen,
waste products, and vitamins
through the blood to various organs
and tissues. Proteins can also act as
channels through which some substances
Substances that help maintain
the proper pH in a solution by attracting
or donating hydrogen ions
Proteins made by your body to bind to and neutralize foreign invaders, such as harmful bacteria, fungi, and viruses, as part of the body's immune response.
4 calories per gram.
(1) structural and mechanical support,
(2) building enzymes and some hormones, (3) maintaining fluid balance,
(4) maintaining acid-base balance,
(5) transporting substances
(6) providing antibodies; immune system,
(7) providing energy,
(8) promoting satiety.
The state in
which an individual is consuming the
same amount of nitrogen (from protein)
in the diet as he or she is excreting
in the urine
positive nitro balance
pregnant and athletes, take in more than they excrete.
negative nitro balance
The measure of a
protein's digestibility and how its
amino acid pattern compares with your
body's needs. Proteins that are more
easily digested and have a complete set
of amino acids are of higher quality.
animal protein (90-99%) breaks down better than plant protein (70-90%). The plant cell walls protect it.
amino acid profile
The types and amounts of amino acids in a protein.
A protein that
provides all the essential amino acids
that your body needs, along with some
nonessential amino acids. Soy protein
and protein from animal sources, in
general, are complete
A protein that is low in one or more of the essential amino acids. Protein from plant
sources tends to be incomplete.
limiting amino acid
The amino acid that is in the shortest supply in an incomplete protein.
Incomplete proteins that are combined
with modest amounts of animal or soy
proteins or with other plant proteins
that are rich in the limiting amino
acids to create a complete protein.
protein digestibility corrected
amino acid score (PDCAAS)
A score measured as a percentage that
takes into account both digestibility
and amino acid profile and gives a
good indication of the quality of a
How many grams?
Adult 0.8 g per kg of body weight.
<18yrs old 0.85g per kg
Too Much Protein
Not Enough Protein
lack of sufficient dietary
protein and/or calories.
A state of PEM where there is a severe deficiency of dietary protein.
1st child syndrome.
Edema in legs, feet, and tummy.
A state of PEM where there is a severe deficiency of calories that perpetuates wasting; also called starvation.
Frail and wasting away look.
Possible Vegetarian deficiency
protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, riboflavin (a B vitamin), vitamin B12,
vitamin A, and omega-3 fatty acids
Naturally occurring phytoestrogens, or weak plant estrogens, that function in a fashion similar to the hormone estrogen in the human body.
The hormone responsible for female sex characteristics.
protein in meat
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