24 terms

Prentice Hall Biology Chapter 18 Vocabulary

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taxonomy
scientists classify organisms and assign each organism a universally accepted name
binomial nomenclature
classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific naem
genus
is a group of closely related species
taxon
group or level of organization into which organisms are classified
family
group of genera that share many characteristics
order
is a broad taxonomic category composed of similar families
phylum
group of closely related classes
kingdom
large taxonomic group, consisting of closley related phyla
class
group of similar orders
phylogeny
evoluntionary relationships among organisms
evolutionary classification
the strategy of grouping organisms together based on their evolutionary history
derived characters
characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its older memebers
cladogram
a diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
molecular clock
model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two speies have been evolving independently
domain
most inclusive taxonomic category; larger than a kingdom
Bacteria
domain of unicellular porkaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycan
Eubacteria
kingdom of unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls are made up of peptidoglycan
Archaea
domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycan
Archaebacteria
kingdom of inicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan
Eukarya
domain of all organisms whose cells have nuclei, including protists, plants, fungi, and animals
Protista
kingdom composed of eukaryotes that are not classified as plants, animals or fungi
Fungi
kingdom composand of heterotrophs; many obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matter
Plantae
kingdom of multicellular photosynthetic autotrophs that have cell walls containing cellulose
Animalia
kingdom of multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs whose cells do not have cell walls