Thomas Jefferson's greatest achievements was the Louisiana Purchase, in which the United States acquired 828,800 square miles of the French territory Louisiane in 1803.
At the end of the French and Indian Wars in 1763, France lost all of its possessions in North America.
When the United States won its independence from Great Britain in 1783, one of its major concerns was having a European power on its western boundary, and the need for unrestricted access to the Mississippi River. 1800, Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of France, concluded the Treaty of San Ildefonso with Spain, which returned Louisiana to French ownership in exchange for a Spanish kingdom in Italy. Napoleón lost the sugar Islands, and sold all Luisiana to Jefferson.
The Lewis and Clark expedition, right after the Luisiana Purchase (1804-1806) was the first United States overland expedition to the Pacific coast and back. President Thomas Jefferson, an advocate of western expansion send a small U.S. Army unit to explore the west all the way to the Pacific Ocean. Along their way, they were instructed to study and make detailed reports on the Indian tribes, geography, climate, plants and animals, as well as evaluate the potential interference of British and French-Canadian hunters and trappers who were already well established in the area. In addition, one of Jefferson's main objectives was for the unit to find a waterway that would connect the east to the west.
Lewis and Clark reached their staging point at the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers near St. Louis, Missouri in December 1803. They went up along the Missouri River, and reched Oregon whit the help of Sacagawea, a Shoshone indian, that spoke both Shashone and Minitari. They made a great contibution with all the data collected.
By 1820 the settled area included Ohio, southern Indiana and Illinois, southeastern Missouri, and about half of Louisiana. These settled areas often surrounded Indian lands, whom the settlers protested against, which would later result in the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The frontier region of the time lay along the Great Lakes, where Astor's American Fur Company operated in the Indians trade, and beyond the Mississippi River, where Indians traders extended their activity as far as the Rocky Mountains.
Signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830, this act authorized the president to grant unsettled lands west of the Mississippi River in exchange for Indian lands within existing state borders.
During the Creek War of 1813-1814. After their defeat, the Creek Nation lost land in southern Georgia and central Alabama. The next year, in 1815, and again in 1818, Jackson marched against the Seminole Indians in Spanish held Florida. In 1819 Spain sold Florida to the United States.
Jackson also negociated treaties between the years of 1814 and 1824, in which, among others, teh Creek, Cherokee and Choctaw divested their eastern lands in exchange for lands in the west. Many others resisted the relocation policy and the Creek and Seminole waged war to protect their territory.
While Native American removal was supposed to be voluntary, in practice, great pressure was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties. Some Native American leaders who had previously resisted removal soon began to reconsider their positions, especially after Jackson's landslide re-election in 1832. Affected tribes included the Cherokee , Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and the Seminole.
After the Removal Act was the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek on September 27, 1830, in which Choctaw in Mississippi ceded their land east of the the Mississippi River.
The Treaty of New Echota was signed in 1835, which resulted in the removal of the Cherokee in the fall and winter of 1838 and 1839.
During the removal, approximately 4,000/15000 Cherokee died of hunger, disease, cold and exhaustion on this forced march, which became known as the "Trail of Tears."(Nunna daul Tsuny) Cherokee Nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and migrate to Indian Territory (now present day Oklahoma.)
The Seminole ; however, did not leave peacefully and resisted removal, resulting in the Second Seminole War, which lasted from 1835 to 1842. Eventually, they were forced to move.
As part of President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Policy of 1830, the Cherokee Nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and migrate to Indian Territory (now present day Oklahoma.)
During the forced march, over 4,000 of the 15,000 Indians died of hunger, disease, cold, and exhaustion. In the Cherokee language, the event is called Nunna daul Tsuny -- "the trail where they cried."
The Indian Removal Act was spawned by the rapidly expanding population of new settlers which created tensions with the American Indian tribes. Even Thomas Jefferson, who often cited the Great Law of Peace of the Iroquois Confederacy as the model for the U.S. Constitution, supported Indian removal as early as 1802.
Long time we travel on way to new land. People feel bad when they leave old nation. Women cry and make sad wails. Children cry and many men cry, and all look sad like when friends die, but they say nothing and just put heads down and keep on go towards West. Many days pass and people die very much. We bury close by Trail.
However, Jefferson's policy was also to allow Indians to remain east of the Mississippi River as long as they became "civilized," meaning they were to settle in one place, adopt democracy, and divide communal land into private property to be utilized for farming.
Also in the year of 1802, the state of Georgia gave up its claims to land in the western part of the state to the U.S. Government. These lands became the states of Alabama and Mississippi. In exchange, Georgia expected that the government would remove the Indian tribes, thus allowing the State of Georgia full control of the land within its borders.
When this didn't immediately happen, white settlers began to resent the Cherokee. Pressure was put on the tribe to voluntarily move, but their homeland, overlapping Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Alabama had been their place of residence for generations and they obviously did not want to make the move.
In 1819 Georgia appealed to the U.S. government to remove the Cherokee from Georgia lands and when the appeal failed, attempts were made to purchase the territory. The next year, in 1820, the Cherokee Nation was founded, which included elected public officials and a governmental system modeled after the United States. John Ross was elected its principal chief and tribal members were elected to its senate and house of representatives. One of the new government's first tasks was to enact a law that forbade the sale of any of the Cherokee lands on punishment of death.
In 1825, Ross, along with Major John Ridge, the speaker of the Cherokee National Council, established a capitol near near present-day Calhoun, Georgia. Two years later a written constitution was drafted, which declared the Cherokee Nation to be a sovereign and independent nation.
When gold was discovered in White County, Georgia in 1828, the state began to push even harder for removal of the Indians. The Georgia legislature soon outlawed the Cherokee government and confiscated tribal lands. When the Cherokee appealed for federal protection, they were rejected by President Andrew Jackson.
When the State of Georgia moved to extend state law over Cherokee lands in 1830, the Cherokee Nation took the matter before the U.S. Supreme Court. A year later, the court ruled that the Cherokee were not a sovereign and independent nation. Another court ruling in 1832 stated that Georgia could not impose laws in Cherokee territory, since only the national government had authority in Indian affairs.
But, these court rulings would make no difference, as while the cases were before the courts, President Andrew Jackson authorized the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Once an ally of the Cherokee, Jackson was fully committed to the policy of Indian removal, which provided for the government to negotiate removal treaties, exchanging Indian land in the East for land west of the Mississippi River. The first treaty was that of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek with the Choctaw that moved some 14,000 Choctaw west from Mississippi along the Red River. However, about 7,000 of the Choctaw tribe remained in Mississippi.
The Jackson Administration began to put pressure on the Cherokee and other tribes to sign treaties of removal but the Cherokee rejected any proposals. However, when Jackson was reelected in 1832, some of the Cherokee believed that removal was inevitable. A Treaty Party, led by Major John Ridge, believed that it was in the best interest of the Cherokee Nation to get the best possible terms from the U.S. government. Cautiously, Ridge began unauthorized talks with the Jackson administration.
However, Chief John Ross and the majority of the Cherokee people remained adamantly opposed to removal. In 1832, Ross cancelled the tribal elections and the Council impeached Ridge, and a member of the Ridge Party was murdered. The "Treaty Party" responded by forming their own council, which represented only a small minority of the Cherokee people. Both the Ross government and the Ridge Party sent independent delegations to Washington.
In the meantime, the State of Georgia was so sure that the Cherokee would be removed, they began holding lotteries in order to divide up the Cherokee tribal lands among white Georgians.
In 1835, Jackson appointed a treaty commissioner by the name of Reverend John F. Schermerhorn who offered to pay the Cherokee Nation 4.5 million dollars to move. In October, 1835, the terms were rejected by the Cherokee Nation. Both Chief Ross and John Ridge traveled to Washington in an attempt to open new negotiations, but they were turned away and told to deal with Schermerhorn.
Schermerhorn soon organized a group of pro-removal members and issued a summons for attendance by the Cherokee members. Though only about 500 of the Cherokee (out of thousands) attended, the Treaty of New Echota was agreed to which provided for the Cherokee Nation to cede its lands in exchange for $5,700,000 and new lands in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma.) Though the actions was repudiated by more than nine-tenths of the tribe and was not signed by a single elected tribal official, Congress ratified the treaty on May 23, 1836.
Chief Ross and the Cherokee National Council maintained that the document was a fraud and presented a petition with more than 15,000 Cherokee signatures to congress in the spring of 1838. Other white settlers also were outraged by the questionable legality of the treaty. On April 23, 1838, Ralph Waldo Emerson appealed to Jackson's successor, President Martin Van Buren, urging him not to inflict "so vast an outrage upon the Cherokee Nation. But it was not to be.
As the deadline for voluntary removal on May 23, 1838 approached, President Van Buren appointed General Winfield Scott to lead the forcible removal operation. Commanding some 7,000 troops, Scott arrived in Georgia on May 26th beginning a forcible evacuation at gunpoint. An estimated 17,000 Cherokee, along with about 2,000 black slaves, were forced to move over the next three weeks. The swift and brutal process drove men, women and children out of their homes, sometimes with only the clothes on their backs. They were then gathered in camps where conditions were terrible. Many of the Cherokee died while waiting in the camps, where food and supplies were limited and disease was rampant.
Fortunately, about 1,000 Cherokee escaped to the North Carolina mountains. Others who lived on individually owned land (rather than tribal domains) were not subject to removal. Those lucky enough to have not been evacuated would eventually form new tribal groups including the Eastern Band Cherokee, based in North Carolina that continues to exist today.
Two routes were utilized to move the thousands of Cherokee. The first of three detachments, totaling about 2,800 people, left on June 6th by steamboats and barges on the Tennessee River at present-day Chattanooga, Tennessee. After several transfers, including a short railroad detour, they at the mouth of Salisaw Creek near Fort Coffee on June 19, 1838. The other two groups suffered more because of a severe drought and disease (especially among the children), and they did not arrive in Indian Territory until the end of the summer.
The rest of the Cherokee were not so fortunate, forced to travel to Indian Territory on overland trails. For those forced to march by land, the Cherokee petitioned for a delay until cooler weather would make the journey less hazardous. Chief Ross, who had finally accepted defeat, also managed to have the remainder of the removal turned over to the supervision of the Cherokee Council.
Organized into detachments of 700 to 1,600 people, each was headed by a conductor and an assistant appointed by Chief John Ross, the marches began on August 28, 1838 consisting of thirteen groups.
The most commonly used overland route followed a northern alignment, while other detachments followed more southern routes, and other slight variations. The northern route began in Tennessee, crossed southwestern Kentucky and southern Illinois. After crossing the Mississippi River north of Cape Girardeau, Missouri, these detachments trekked across southern Missouri and the northwest corner of Arkansas before arriving in Oklahoma near present day Westville.
Along the 2,200 mile journey, road conditions, illness, cold, and exhaustion took thousands of lives, including Chief John Ross' wife, Quatie. Though the federal government officially stated some 424 deaths, an American doctor traveling with one the party estimated that 2,000 people died in the camps and another 2,000 along the trail. Other estimates have been stated that conclude that almost 8,000 of the Cherokee died during the Indian Removal.
When they finally reached Oklahoma , the groups were often met by US. troops from Fort Gibson and the Arkansas River. Most of the Cherokee went to live with those who had already arrived, settling near present-day Tahlequah, Oklahoma. Problems quickly developed among the new arrivals and those Cherokee who had already settled. Reprisals were taken against the group who had signed the Treaty of New Echota leading to the assassinations of Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot. Only Stand Watie eluded his assassins.
As these problems were resolved, the Cherokee proceeded to adapt to their new homeland, reestablishing their own system of government. The population of the Cherokee Nation eventually rebounded, and today the Cherokee are the largest American Indian group in the United States.
In the end, members of the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole Nations suffered the same fate as the Cherokee.
Considered to be one of the most regrettable episodes in American History, the U.S. Congress designated the Trail of Tears National Historic Trail in 1987. Commemorating the 17 Cherokee detachments the trail encompasses about 2,200 miles of land and water routes, and traverses portions of nine states.
The National Park Service, in partnership with other federal agencies, state and local agencies, non-profit organizations, and private landowners, administers the Trail of Tears.
By 1830, the Old Northwest and Old Southwest, which were scarcely populated before the war, began to be settled and before long, the states of Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Alabama, and Mississippi were admitted into the Union.
In the 1830's and 1840's, "Manifest Destiny," the idea that the United States was destined to expand across the entire continent, was used to promote further territorial expansion. The concept of American expansion was much older, but John L. O'Sullivan coined the term "Manifest Destiny" in 1845
Americans began to buy into the inevitability of settling unexplored western frontiers, first moving into places such as Michigan, Arkansas, Wisconsin, and Ohio. In the 1840's and 1850's the nation expanded quickly and in the span of just five years, the United States increased its size by a third. It annexed Texas; negotiated with Britain for half of the Oregon country; and acquired more as a result of a war with Mexico:
In 1845, the United States annexed Texas.
In 1846 the Oregon Treaty ended British claims to Oregon Territory.
In 1848, following the Mexican-American War, Mexico ceded much of the West and Southwest to the United States. This included what would become the states of California, Nevada, Utah, parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming.
In 1853 the United States bought an additional tract of land from Mexico.
People then began to move in numbers into Texas, California, and Oregon. The California Gold Rush, the construction of railroads, the Mormons' long pilgrimage to Utah, and the blazing of the Santa Fe and Oregon Trails all contributed to the expansion of the "wild west."
Between the California Gold Rush and the Civil War, Americans, in growing numbers filled the Mississippi River Valley, the southwest territories, and the new states of Kansas and Nebraska. During the war, gold and silver discoveries drew prospectors—and later settlers—into Oregon, Colorado, Nevada, Idaho, and Montana. But, the most rapid migration occurred after the One factor in encouraging settlers to move west was the Homestead Act, passed in 1862, which allowed settlers to claim 160 acres of land for free. Another important factor was completion of the first transcontinental railroad in 1869 which led to much more rapid Western migration.
The Mexican-American War, from its outbreak on May 13, 1846 until the termination of hostilities signified by the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848, transformed the Santa Fe Trail. United States acquisition of the Southwest following the conflict put the Trail under domestic jurisdiction, although it still carried international trade.
Mexico had always viewed Texas and the United States as different entities, but the passage of a joint resolution for the annexation of the Republic of Texas through U.S. Congress on March 1, 1845, placed considerable stress on U.S. relations with Mexico.
Other factors in previous years such as the U.S. territorial expansion of the 1840s, the migration of U.S. citizens into northern Mexico via the Santa Fe Trail, the boundary dispute between Texas and Mexico, U.S. citizens' financial claims against Mexico in addition to the political instability of the Mexican government, all contributed to a weakening of relations between the two countries.
The election of James Polk as President of the United States in 1844 under a mandate for Manifest Destiny announced the U.S. intention to expand to the Pacific Ocean with Oregon, Texas, and California just three of the goals of the expansionist movement. Official hostilities between the United States and Mexico began on 1846 when the U.S. Congress declared war on Mexico.
The Santa Fe Trail contributed to the expansion of the Union. Among the first U.S. forces to move along the Santa Fe Trail into New Mexico was the Army of the West under the command of Colonel Kearny.
The Army of the West left Fort Leavenworth, Kansas on 1846, and chose to follow the Mountain Route of the Trail because it provided access to water and to a ready made base for operations -- Bent's Fort, Colorado.
From Bent's Fort, on 1846, the Army of the West marched toward Santa Fe, reaching the city unchallenged on August 1846.
Kearny was anxious to promote his mission as one of liberation and not that of conquest so, to this end, circulars were sent to Mexican villages in advance, promising them friendship and protection under U.S. control.
Kearny declared the U.S. occupation of New Mexico on August 19, 1846. The annexation of New Mexico by the United States resulted in Charles Bent being installed as Governor of the territory of New Mexico.
As the territory of the United States increased, so too did the need for more routes farther west. The Mormon Battalion, composed of 500 young men from Nauvoo, Illinois, under the leadership of Captain Cooke, were dispatched from Fort Leavenworth to provide support for the Army of the West as it set out to open a wagon road from the Rio Grande to California.
The Mormon Battalion followed the Cimarron Route, and met with some resistance in New Mexico in 1847. Reinforcements were sent via the Santa Fe Trail under the leadership of Colonel Sterling Price and they were successful in maintaining U.S. control. Another portion of the Army of the West under the command of Colonel Alexander Doniphan marched down the Rio Grande Valley to capture Chihuahua, Mexico which had also become a popular destination for Santa Fe traders.
Troops assigned to occupy New Mexico were dispatched over the Santa Fe Trail at various times during the course of the Mexican War.
Indeed many individuals who had become familiar with the Trail through their part in the war effort would later come back as traders.
Resistance to U .S. occupation continued in the form of guerilla warfare with insurrections at Taos and Mora, New Mexico in early 1847, with Governor Bent perishing in the Taos confrontation.
The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848 signaled the end of the war, but only the beginning of an expanding trade. Three thousand wagons, 12,000 people and 50,000 head of livestock were estimated to have moved over the Trail in the summer of 1848.
Increasing use of the Santa Fe Trail during the Mexican War continued to pose a threat to American Indian habitation.
Big Timbers, located east of Bent's Old Fort on the Arkansas River in Colorado, is an example of one such instance. At Big Timbers between 1846 and 1847, the increase in traffic along the Santa Fe Trail meant that the habitat and hunting of game had been disrupted, the water had been polluted, and trees had been cut down indiscriminately.
As a result of such incursions, 47 Trail travelers were killed, 330 wagons were destroyed, and 6,500 animals were stolen. In September, 1847, a battalion of troops was assigned to guard the wagon trains.
Roving columns of soldiers ready to participate in battle were employed initially, however, this mobile police force proved to be ineffective due to the length of the corridor that had to be patrolled.
The Army of the West Travels into New MexicoWith the signing of the treaty, the United States acquired what is now considered New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah in addition to parts of Colorado, Wyoming, Oklahoma, Kansas and Texas. The Texas Annexation of 1845 and the Mexican Cession of 1848 provided for the creation of California, the Utah Territory, New Mexico Territory, and Texas with the remainder comprising unorganized territory. Despite the U . S . preparation for war with Mexico, several aspects in the execution of a successful military operation, as they related to the Santa Fe Trail, were apparently not fully considered. The method of supplying the army demonstrated a lack of deliberation in that provisions reached the military outposts faster than wagons could become available for their distribution. Even when they were available, their drivers were often inexperienced." The Mexican War altered the pattern of Old Santa Fe trade. New Mexican and interior Mexican merchants, while successful, assumed a declining proportion of the Santa Fe trade following the Mexican War. The Santa Fe route changed from foreign to domestic jurisdiction while small proprietors were replaced by large freighting companies. With the increasing commercial value of merchandise, the Santa Fe trade expanded.
In 1848, following the Mexican-American War, Mexico ceded much of the West and Southwest to the United States. This included what would become the states of California, Nevada, Utah, parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming
The Mexican-American War (1846-1848) - Also referred to as the Mexican War or the U.S.-Mexican War, this armed conflict occurred after the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas.
Despite the 1836 Texas Revolution, Mexico still considered her part of its territory. The Mexican Congress never recognized Texan independence, seeing the Republic as a rebellious territory that would eventually be retaken.
After the annexation of Texas as a state in December, 1845, Mexico immediately broke off diplomatic relations with the United States and disputes arose as to the southern boundary of Texas, which had now become the southern boundary of the United States. The Mexicans said that Texas extended only to the Nueces River, while the Texans declared that it extended to the Rio Grande River.
Territorial expansion of the United States to the Pacific Coast was the goal of President James K. Polk, who proceeded to defend the territory of its new state. Though the war was highly controversial, with the Whig Party and anti-slavery elements strongly opposed, Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to lead his forces to the Rio Grande River.
In January, 1846, Taylor and 4,000 soldiers, marched to the Rio Grande River but, were ordered not to attack the Mexicans. However, Taylor's orders also required that he defend himself and his troops if the Mexicans instigated an assault. The troops initially spent their time patrolling the new border and scouting to see if any Mexican soldiers had crossed the Rio Grande River.
On April 25th, a company of some 70 Dragoons, commanded by Captain Seth Thornton, was scouting parts of the disputed area about 20 miles northwest of what is now Brownsville, Texas. Their mission was to determine whether or not the Mexican Army had crossed the Rio Grande for a possible attack on Fort Texas (later called Fort Brown.) Acting on the advice of a local guide, the troops went to investigate an abandoned hacienda. What they found were 2,000 Mexican soldiers under the command of Colonel Anastasio Torrejón encamped in and around the hacienda.
Fighting immediately broke out and though the vastly outnumbered U.S. troops fought ferociously, they were forced to surrender after several hours of resisting. Known as the Thornton Affair, Thornton Skirmish or Thornton's Defeat, 16 U.S. Dragoons were killed and five wounded, including Captain Thornton. One U.S. cavalryman; however, was able to escape and made it back to camp, reporting of the Mexican opening of hostilities. Fifty men, including Captain Thornton, were taken prisoner and held at Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Upon learning of the incident, President Polk asked for a declaration of war before a joint session of the United States Congress and on May 13, 1846, Congress declared war on Mexico.
The first battles were fought in Texas, which included the Siege of Fort Texas, the Battle of Palo Alto, and the Battle of Resaca de la Palma. After these decisive victories, General Taylor began a campaign invading Mexican territory.
Battle of Buena Vista, MexicoIn Mexico, Taylor and Mexican leader, General Santa Anna, fought a desperate battle at Buena Vista in February, 1847. Though the U.S. troops were greatly outnumbered, General Taylor placed his men so skillfully, that he won a victory that put an end to the campaign in northern Mexico. However, this defeat as well as other skirmishes did not serve to induce the Mexicans to give up all the territory that the United States demanded, so it was determined to send an army directly to the enemy's capital in Mexico City.
President Polk sent a second army under General Winfield Scott, which was transported to the port of Vera Cruz by sea, to begin an invasion of the Mexican heartland. On March 9, 1847, Scott landed at the chief Mexican seaport on the eastern coast and captured the city.
From there, Scott and his army marched to Cerro Gordo, where the road to the capital city passes through the mountains. His plans were so skillfully made and carried out that the Mexican army was defeated at that place and again at Pueblo. The Americans were now in the heart of Mexico, far away from their base of supplies and opposed by an army of many times their own numbers, but they pressed on and captured the defenses of the city.
General Stephen W. Kearny, conquest of New Mexico, 1846In the meantime, citizens in California, which was still a part of the Mexican Republic, also began to rebel. Unhappy with the way that the Mexicans treated them, they established a republic of their own and asked the U.S. Government for help. Under the command of Commodore Robert F. Stockton, several naval vessels were sent to the Pacific Coast. Captain John c. Fremont of the U.S. Army also arrived to aid the Californians.
And, in New Mexico, General Stephen W. Kearny with a strong expedition was sent to capture the old Spanish-Mexican town of Santa Fe, which he did with little trouble, before marching on to California. With the help of U.S. troops, the last battle was fought in California on January 9, 1847 and on January 12th, the last significant body of Californians surrendered to U.S. forces, marking the end of resistance in California.
After a series of United States victories, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 1848, ended the two year war. In return for $18,250,000, Mexico gave the U.S. undisputed control of Texas, with its border at the Rio Grande River, and the U.S. agreed to withdraw her armies from Mexico. The treaty also required Mexico to abandoned her claims to California, New Mexico, and other lands which are now included in the states of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming.
When the boundary line came to be surveyed, the American and Mexican commissioners could not agree. In the end, in 1853, the United States paid Mexico ten million dollars more and got in return a strip in the extreme southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico, thus making the southern boundary of the United States as it is today.
1776-Declaration of independence/A long train of abuses and usurpations.
Troops would be sustained by colons after the French/indian War.
Proclamation Line of 1763-Apalachian Line/Indians reservation.
Sugar Act-1764-import tax, smugglers go to admiralty courts instead of jury trials existed since the Magna Carta.
Stamp Act-1765 internal tax on legal documents. (protest: mob protests, violence, stop buying English products) NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION (English Marga Carta)
Resistance Movements: Sons of Liberty (harrassed taxes officers)/Daughters of liberty (homespun fabric)
Thownshend Act-1767: import taxes on paper, lead (plomo), glass, paint, tea
Boston Massacre (Reviere propaganda) Only Tax on Tea remains.
Tea Act -monopoly for the British East India Company /cheap prices.
Boston Tea Party 1773. Sons of Liberty dress like Mohoak indians and drop the tea.
Intolerable Acts (Reviere names it as) 1774:
1. Close the Boston Port untill tea is paid.
2. Massachusetts under martial law.
3. Quartering Act (forced querter of troups)
4. Judgments in England
5. Quebec Act: allow them to be Catholics.
Lexington and Concord Battle 1775: English retreat.
Declaration of Indepenency July 4, 1776: In General Congress Assembly by the Representatives of America.
John Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress would edit to produce the final version.
The Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with the Kingdom of Great Britain, regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer under British rule. Instead they formed a new nation—the United States of America.
Authors: Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert R. Livingston
Purpose: To announce and explain separation from Great Britain
Primary author: Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Paine (professional revolutionary) 1776-Common Sense: independence is possible.
Long Island´s defeat G. Washington. Continental Currency to solve war expenses. ("not worth a Continental")
Thomas Paine persuade Americans not to give up the fight. These are the time that try men´s soul!
Battle of Trenton, 1776, against Hessians (German mercenaries hired by King George III), victory. Washington crossing the Delaware with the Continental Army.
Treaty of Paris 1783: recognizes each of the 13 colonies as free, sovereign and independent states, having all of the privileges of a nation.
The boundaries of the US were established (Great lakes, Mississippi river, Florida), free commerce with England, no more confiscations to English loyal, congress recommend return properties.
They were afraid about the primary intentions of creating a stronger government, meaning that the constitution would undermine republicanism (republic = commonwealth, common property), and that that government would not be subject to the people, but for personal interests. They were worried about the lack of tem limits, and rotation in office. Only 9 states ratified the constitution. New York and Virginia were part of the ones who didn´t. they were worried that it would create more aristocracy and would fail to respect the rights of the states. In creating a strong government, the states would have to give up power, also about concurrent federal taxation (double taxation: state and federal) farmers were antifederalists, the Philadelphian constitution was made by costal commercial cities. The constitution had no bill of rights. So, is not only about to define the scope of powers, is also about what the government is not going to do. Liberty, freedom, anti-tyranny. Hamilton: Strong central government, otherwise anarchy and mob rules, loose constitution, urban (commerce), government should be involved in economy, should be a National Bank, protective tariffs for producers, Federal assumption of war debts, Anglophile.
Jefferson: federalism, not a strong government involved in economy, banking, and not protective tariffs, not federal assumption of debts, Francophile.
1791, congress, recommended by Hamilton, who wanted the government to assume the war debt, passed an excise tax (a tax levied on certain goods and commodities produced or sold within a country) on whiskey to pay the war debts, or a "sin tax" which is a tax for luxurious articles. That measure wasn´t popular with Appalachian settlers who used spare corn to produce whiskey, and also whiskey was used as a currency. It was a regressive tax as well, small distillers (pay by gallon) would pay more taxes than large distillers (pay a flat rate). Washington was the largest distiller.
The whiskey rebellion started in western Pensylvania, Pittsburg. The western farmers against the Eastern elites. "no taxation without representation" The govern should not directly tax. They tarred and feathered the tax collector. In 1794 Washington sent General Robert Lee in charge of the troops to confront rebels. They hide, and Washington got his victory. Jefferson saw that as an overreaction.
Hamilton named his party, the Federalist, "The party of law and order", and the Republicans the party of anarchy. That was the last armed movement of the west until Civil War. Tax was removed. Jefferson as president, repealed the whiskey tax with all internal excise taxes. He got into the remaining revenues on the consumption of foreign articles. No Federalists would ever hold the presidency again after John Adams in 1800. Voting patterns in west and north continue. Appalachian is still now, support anti-elite politicians. America continue to discuss taxation.
Jefferson wanted to support the French Revolution, at least in spirit, and Hamilton and the Federalists opposed. Washington asked his Cabinet: How should US respond? !793, Washington proclaim US neutrality, defining the foreign policy all the way through World War II. Jefferson resigns.
Jay´s Treaty 1794-96
England would leave the forts vacant, as it should be after the Treaty of Paris, and the US would give them privileges in commerce. Jay Treaty is an amity, commerce, and navigation treaty. The Jeffersonian Republicans opposed because it would create more tension with France. Great opposition in the states burning effigies. The Senate didn´t support the treaty. by the US constitution, every treaty should be ratified by at least 2/3 of the Senate, who should advice and consent. Senators serve times of 6 years. The treaty was approved by the senate.
Pinkney´s Treaty 1795 with Spain. Very favorable and non controversial.
Settled West Florida Boundary in favor to U.S.
Free navigation of the Mississippi River
Right of Deposit (New Orleans)
Washington Farewell Address: warned about political partisanship (Hamilton and Jefferson), everyone should work together; sectionalism (not to divide the country), foreign entanglements (to be neutral), respect the Constitution, Adams did the opposite in every aspect, and was in clear opposition with Jefferson in the 1796 ´s election, when the North and the South was divided. Republicans in the South, and Federalists in the North. The Constitution has no prevision for political parties.
Federalists-Gazette of the United States
Adamas was acused to be: querulous, bald, blind, crippled, toothless, old.
The Griswold-Lyon Fight 1798 (real quarrel between partisans)
The Quasi-War, un undeclared naval conflict between US and France in 1798/1800
The Alien and Sedition Act, 1798
Alien Friends Act
Alien Enemies Act
Autlowed the president to deport undesirable aliens (French)
Extended the residency requirement from 5 years to 15 years.
The sedition act empowered the president to prosecute acts of opposition, which was unconstitutional. First Amendment: Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press
Both resolutions advocate the Compact Theory of the Constitution (that means that the constitution is an agreement that all parts are oblied to follow). They say that the state government sometimes need to be in between of the people and the central government in order to protect the people.
Madison sayd that the government is not honoring the agreement of the Constitution.
Jefferson is more radical, he says that the federal government should interpose against those unconstitutional and seditional acts. he apeals to the
Tenth Amendment of the Constitution: "The powers not delegated to the US Constitution, nor prohibited by the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."So, if the government ignores the Constitution, the states are need to be able to not only protest, but to do something, and that is Nullification. In other words, the state has no duty to comply an illegal Act (The Alien and Sedition Act, 1798)
Tecumse, an indian leader organized a resistance in Indiana´s frontier, not letting the settlers pass. The conflicts ended in the battle of Tippecanoe, in 1911. They were using arms from Canada, and people suspected that the English gave them the arms to kill Americans.
Madison War´s Message to Congress, 1812 supporting war to England.
Impressment of sailiors
Cutting off trade
Interference with Native Americans in the western frontier.
They landed in Washington in 1814, and burned the city.
The Gheant treaty ended the war, 1814, before it bagan. (called status quo ante bellum)
Battle of New Orleans, 1915, Jackson defeat the British, he, and the English who attacked didn´t know about the peace treaty. Surge a national pride, and Jackson become National Hero.
After all the diplomatic issues with Great Britain, from preventing trade to impressing sailors, the United States declared war on Great Britain on June 18, 1812.
President James Madison's war message to Congress echoed the language of the Declaration of Independence.
Although the outbreak of the war had been preceded by years of diplomatic disputes, neither Britain nor the United States was prepared. Britain was heavily engaged in war with the French and in the United States, the military was understaffed and the government did not have the money to finance the war properly. President Madison assumed that the state militias would easily seize Canada and that negotiations would follow. However, from the beginning, the war was extremely unpopular, especially in New England, which would later make threats of secession.
The U.S. Army, consisting of fewer than 12,000 men, was not nearly enough to achieve Madison's goals. Congress authorized the expansion of the army to 35,000 men; however, the service was voluntary, offered poor pay, and there were few trained and experienced officers. Britain exploited these weaknesses, blockading only southern ports for much of the war and encouraging smuggling.
General William Hull led a force of about 1,000 untrained, poorly-equipped militia across the Detroit River and occupied the Canadian town of Sandwich (now a neighborhood of Windsor, Ontario). By August, Hull and his troops, which had increased to about 2,500 men, quickly withdrew to the American side of the river after hearing the news of the capture of Fort Mackinac by the British. In Detroit, he also faced unfriendly Native American forces, which threatened to attack. Hull surrendered Fort Detroit to Sir Isaac Brock on August 16, 1812. The surrender not only cost the United States the village of Detroit, but control over most of the Michigan territory.
Numerous battles and skirmishes would be fought over the next two years while the United states suffered critically without proper leadership. This un-preparedness eventually drove United States Secretary of War William Eustis from office in January, 1813, though military and civilian leadership remained a critical American weakness until 1814.
Battle of the Thames, War of 1812. When the government turned to building warships on the Great Lakes, things began to improve. Recruiting some 3,000 men, 11 warships were built on Lake Ontario and in 1813, the Americans won control of Lake Erie and cut off British and Native American forces in the west from their supply base. On October 5, 1813, the Americans attacked and won a victory over the British and Native Americans at the Battle of the Thames in Ontario, Canada. During the battle, Shawnee Chief Tecumseh was killed and his Indian coalition disintegrated.
At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded much of the coastline, though it allowed exports from New England, which traded with Canada in defiance of American laws. The blockade to the south devastated American agricultural exports, but it helped stimulate local factories that replaced goods that were previously imported. Though the Americans fought valiantly against the British on the coastline, their small gunboats were no match for the Royal Navy.
The British raided the coast at will with several successful attacks on the eastern ports and cities, including the burning of the White House, the Capitol, the Navy Yard, and other public buildings, in the "Burning of Washington." Britain's success in Washington led them to levy "contributions" on bayside towns in return for not burning them to the ground. It also resulted in U.S. Secretary of War John Armstrong being dismissed.
After Napoleon abdicated in April, 1814, the British were able to send their armies to the United States in full force; but, by that time the Americans had learned how to mobilize and fight.
The Treaty of Ghent, the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812, was signed on December 24, 1814, which restored relations between the two nations with no loss of territory either way.
Because of the era's slow communications, it took weeks for news of the peace treaty to reach the United States. As a result the Battle of New Orleans was fought in January, 1815, where General Andrew Jackson defeated the British. The victory made Jackson a national hero, restored the American sense of honor, and ruined the Federalist party efforts to condemn the war as a failure.
In military terms, the War of 1812 was inconclusive, though the United States benefited when Britain ended trade restrictions and the impressment of American sailors.
The three-year conflict also resulted in an upsurge in American nationalism, increased funding of the peacetime military, better coastal defenses, a more secure western frontier, and a final confirmation of the American Revolution's outcome.
At the war's conclusion a French diplomat commented that "the war has given the Americans what they so essentially lacked, a national character."
No more federalist party, individuals like Jackson come from the popular class, and other candidates appear. The popular vole is starting to be allowed. the new system is direct election. Before, only the State Legislature could vote. When a candidate has not bein elected by majority, the House of Representatives will decide, and each state receive 1 vote.
The corrupt Bargain:
Clay supports Adams, and is nominated Secretary of State.
President / Secretary of State
1789/1797 Washington /Jefferson x2
1797/1801 Adams (ex vice) /Jefferson x1
1801/1809 Jefferson /Madison x2
1809/1817 Madison /Monroe x2
1817/1825 Monroe /Adams x2
1825/1829 Quincy Adams /Clay x1 Calhum VP
1829/1837 Jackson (breaking the corrupt bargain) democraticly reelected twise
New politics, when popular opinion matters, people read the newspapers.
1928 Jackson´s Campaign Vs Adams:
candidate centered, negative advertising, candidate promotion, political campaign. Dirty publicity. Increases the number of voters.
Believed in the common man.
The vote is universal (white male suffrage)
Since 1816 there were only Republicans, no more two Federalists.
From 1928-1952 there were:
Democrats- Democratic Republicans
Jackson declared war to the Bank. In 1832 he writes the Veto Message: Is this Bank truly necessary?He didn´t want people to have special priviledges. He stopped the second bank of the US for being recharted.
The Bank was the issue of the 1832 election.
First Great Awakening:
Religious revival from 1730-1740
Emotional, siners will burn on hell.
Calvinist: you born with sin, and only God will choose the ones who are going to save. There is nothing you can do, except being afraid.
Edwards: "Siners in a hand of an angry God" famous sermosn.
Second Great Awakening:
Religious revival 1820-30
Charles Finney was one famous preacher who said that New York was a burn over district.
You make a choise to go to hell
Second Great Awakening influence:
Free will as distinct of predetermination.
They focused on conversion within the hart of the listener. It is what most evangelists preach today. Salvation or damnation, your choise. Focused on the conversion.
Finney sermon: "Reprobation" If you are a reprobate, is because you are unwilling. The only way to be saved ia a choise, is to accept the means that God is providing you with.
You make a choise to go to hell or not, it is on you to choose, on your willingness to not be a reprobate.
Baptists and Methodists were larger than other denominations because they are very democratic. Your salvation is in your own hands.
They are all democratic, and the last one promoted abolicionism.
For the calvinists of the Revolution sinfulness is inherent, for the Arminianism Sinfulness is a choice.
The Free Soilers were racists that wanted a free white west, they didn´t want slavery because they didn´t want negroes.
Wiltmont Proviso never passes de Congress aproval, but it articulate the goals of the free soilers:
Non of the territories captured from New Mexico would have slavery (free soiler)"Thy wilmot be slavery in the Mexican cession"
The primary gold of president Lincoln was to preserve the Union. The war lasted 4 years, and 600.000 lives were lost.
The North has the Anaconda plan.
1. Blockade Confedered ports
2. Control the Mississippi and use that river for commerce.
3. Capture Richmond, the Confedered Capital.
Antietan: the bloddiest single day in the war, September 17, 1862. 20.000 lifes. Lincoln fired his comandant general McClelland. He realizes that he will never be able to take Virgina and defeat Lee? He redefines the war: to preserve teh Union and emancipate slaves.
There were three barriers for emancipation:
1. Constitution says that the President can´t legislate concerning slavery. He has no constitutional authority regarding slavery.
2. Border states
3. Preserve the Union
He was not really interested in abolish slavery, he was only interested in saving the Union.
But after Antietan, he was not wining the war, and he lounch his Preliminary Emancipation Proclam:
1862 saying that if the South continues fighting he will emancipate the slaves.
01/01/1863: Proclamation of Independence
By the authority invested as a Comander in Chief of the Army and Navy, as a necessary war meassure to supress the rebelion Lincoln proclames the emancipation of the slavery only in the places that are in rebelion.
Then the years after, every time they took a Confedered territory they emancipate the slaves in order to destabilize and to provide a high moral cause to the Union, of justice, and the gracious favour of God. From now, it is not just defeating the South, the North has a moral High Ground. More than 800.000 african american soldiers were enlisted in the army during the Civil War.
From 1861 to 1865, the United States was torn apart by the Civil War that resulted, primarily, by the issue of slavery. Though many of the disagreements between the North and South had been brewing since the American Revolution ended in 1782, the crisis began to come to a head in the 1850's. It was at this time that northern factions feared that those supporting slavery had too much control in government and the South feared losing that control to anti-slavery forces. Other issues at hand included state's rights vs. federal power, the economic merits of free labor vs. slave labor, expansionism, modernization, and taxes.
Adding fuel to the fire was the nation's growth westward. As new territories such as Kansas and Nebraska were added, the Southern factions felt that slavery should be allowed in these new territories, while the "Free Soilers" were set against it. This led to open warfare between Kansas and Missouri, generally referred to in history as "Bleeding Kansas." One of the many precursors to the Civil War, these many battles pitted neighbor against neighbor.
It was this dispute over the expansion of slavery into the new territories and the election of Abraham Lincoln as president on November 6, 1860 that finally led to the secession of eleven Southern states. Though Lincoln did not propose federal laws making slavery unlawful where it already existed, his sentiments regarding a "divided nation" were well known.
On December 20, 1860, South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union and within two months, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas followed. On February 9, 1861, the Confederate States of America States of America was formed with President Jefferson Davis at its helm.
Fighting began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces attacked a Federal military installation at Fort Sumter in South Carolina.
In the beginning, most believed that the war would be short-lived, but the North underestimated the determination of the South to remain independent. The battles raged over four long years, with some three million men fighting for their cause and resulting in the loss of some 620,000 lives. Confederate General Robert E. Lee, after being forced to abandon the Confederate capital of Richmond, surrendered at Appomattox Virginia on April 9, 1865, effectively ending the Civil War, although small sporadic battles would occur months later.
In the end, the Union prevailed resulting in the restoration of the United States and the end of slavery.
house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved -- I do not expect the house to fall -- but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other.
-- Abraham Lincoln in his acceptance speech for the Republican State Senatorial nomination on June 16, 1858.