EMT Chapter 9
Terms in this set (73)
The secondary muscles of respiration. They include the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoids), the chest pectoralis major muscles, and the abdominal muscles.
altered mental status
Any deviation from alert and oriented to person, place, time, and event, or any deviation from a patient's normal baseline mental status.
To listen to sounds within an organ with a stethoscope.
A method of assessing the level of consciousness by determining whether the patient is awake and alert, responsive to verbal stimuli or pain, or unresponsive; used principally early in the assessment process.
The pressure that the blood exerts against the walls of the arteries as it passes through them.
A slow heart rate, less than 60 beats/min.
An indication of air movement in the lungs, usually assessed with a stethoscope.
A test that evaluates distal circulatory system function by squeezing (blanching) blood from an area such as a nail bed and watching the speed of its return after releasing the pressure.
A noninvasive method to quickly and efficiently provide information on a patient's ventilatory status, circulation, and metabolism; effectively measures the concentration of carbon dioxide in expired air over time.
Carbon dioxide is a component of air and typically makes up 0.3% of air at sea level; also a waste product exhaled during expiration by the respiratory system.
The reason a patient called for help; also, the patient's response to questions such as "What's wrong"" or "What happened?"
To form a lot to plug an opening in an injured blood vessel and stop bleeding.
The delicate membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the exposed surface of the eye.
A crackling, rattling breath sound that signals fluid in the air spaces of the lungs.
A grating or grinding sensation caused by fractured bone ends or joints rubbing together; also air bubbles under the skin that produce a crackling sound or crinkly feeling.
A blue-gray skin color that is caused by a reduced level of oxygen in the blood.
A mnemonic for assessment in which each area of the body is evaluated for Deformities, Contusions, Abrasions, Punctures/penetrations, Burns, Tenderness, Lacerations and Swelling.
Characterized by light or profuse sweating.
The pressure that remains int he arteries during the relaxing phase of the heart's cycle (diastole) when the left ventricle is at rest.
Any injury that prevents the patient from noticing other injuries he or she may have, even severe injuries; for example, a painful femur or tibia fracture that prevents the patient from noticing back pain associated with a spinal fracture.
A type of physical assessment typically performed on patients who have sustained nonsignificant mechanisms of injury or on responsive medical patients. This type of examination is based on the chief complaint and focuses on one body system or part.
Damage to tissues as a result of exposure to cold; frozen or partially frozen body parts are frostbitten.
The overall initial impression that determines the priority for patient care; based on the patient's surroundings, the mechanism of injury, signs and symptoms, and the chief complaint.
The time from injury to definitive care, during which treatment of shock and traumatic injuries should occur because survival potential is best; also called the Golden Period.
Involuntary muscle contractions of the abdominal wall to minimize the pain of abdominal movement; a sign of peritonitis.
A step within the patient assessment process that provides details about the patient's chief complaint and an account of the patient's signs and symptoms.
Blood pressure that is higher than the normal range.
Blood pressure that is lower than the normal range.
A condition in which the internal body temperature falls below 95 degrees Farenheit (35 degrees Celsius) after exposure to a cold environment
incidental command system
A system implemented to manage disasters and mass- and multiple-casualty incidents in which sections chiefs, including finance, logistics, operations, and planning, report to the incident commander. Also referred to as the incident management system.
Yellow skin or sclera that is caused by liver disease or dysfunction.
Breathing that requires greater than normal effort; may be slower or faster than normal and characterized by grunting, stridor, and use of accessory muscles.
mechanism or injury (MOI)
The forces, or energy transmission, applied to the body that cause injury.
The biochemical processes that result in production of energy from nutrients within the cells.
Widening of the nostrils, indicating that there is an airway obstruction.
nature of illness (NOI)
The general type of illness a patient is experiencing.
A mnemonic used in evaluating a patient's pain: Onset, Provocation/palliation, Quality, Region/radiation, Severity and Timing.
The mental status of a patient as measured by memory of person (name), place (current location), time (current year, month, and approximate date), and event (what happened.)
To examine by touch.
The motion of the portion of the chest wall that is detached in a flail chest; the motion - in during inhalation, out during exhalation - is exactly the opposite of normal chest wall motion during breathing.
The flower of blood through body tissues and vessels.
personal protective equipment (PPE)
Protective equipment that blocks exposure to a pathogen or a hazardous material.
Negative findings that warrant no care or intervention.
A painful, tender, persistent erection of the penis; can result from spinal cord injury, erectile dysfunction drugs, or sickle cell disease.
A step within the patient assessment process that identifies and initiates treatment of immediate and potential life threats.
The pressure wave that occurs as each heartbeat causes a surge in the blood circulating through the arteries.
An assessment tool that measures oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the capillary beds.
A step within the patient assessment process performed at regular intervals during the assessment process to identify and treat changes in a patient's condition. A patient in unstable condition should be reassessed every 5 minutes, whereas a patient in stable condition should be reassessed every 15 minutes.
The way in which a patient responds to external stimuli, including a verbal stimuli (sound), tactile stimuli (touch), and painful stimuli.
Movements in which the skin pulls in around the ribs during inspiration.
Coarse, low-pitched breath sounds heard in patients with chronic mucus in the upper airways.
A brief history of a patient's condition to determine signs and symptoms, allergies, medications, pertinent past history, last oral intake, and events leading to the injury or illness.
A step within the patient assessment process that involves a quick assessment of the scene and the surroundings to provide information about scene safety and the mechanism of injury or nature of illness before you enter and begin patient care.
The tough, fibrous, white portion of the eye that protects the more delicate inner structures.
A step within the patient assessment process in which a systematic physical examination of the patient is performed. The examination may be a systematic exam or an assessment that focuses on a certain area or region of the body, often determined through the chief complaint.
Respirations characterized by little movement of the chest wall (reduced tidal volume) or poor chest excursion.
Objective findings that can be seen, heard, felt, smelled or measured.
Knowledge and understanding of your surroundings and situation and the risk they potentially pose to your safety or the safety of the EMS team.
An upright position in which the patient's head and chin are thrust slightly forward to keep the airway open.
Breathing that occurs without assistance.
Protective measures that have traditionally been developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for use in dealing with objects, blood, body fluids, and other potential exposure risks of communicable disease.
A harsh, high pitched, breath sound, generally heard during inspiration, that is caused by partial blockage or narrowing of the upper airway; may be audible without a stethoscope.
A characteristic crackling sensation felt on palpation of the skin, caused by the presence of air in soft tissues.
Subjective findings that the patient feels but that can be identified only by the patient.
The increased pressure in an artery with each contraction of the ventricles (systole).
A rapid hart rate, more than 100 beats/minute.
The amount of air (in milliliters) that is moved in or out of the lungs during one breath.
The process of establishing treatment and transportation priorities according to severity of injury and medical need.
An upright position in which the patient leans forward onto two arms stretched forward and thrusts the head and chin forward.
two-to three-word dyspnea
A severe breathing problem in which a patient can speak only two to three words at a time without pausing to take a breath.
Narrowing of a blood vessel.
The key signs that are used to evaluate the patient's overall condition, including respirations, pulse, blood pressure, level of consciousness, and skin characteristics.
A high-pitched, whistling breath sound that is most prominent on expiration, and which suggests and obstruction or narrowing of the lower airways; occurs in asthma and bronchiolitis.