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da capo form
Ternary (ABA) form in an aria, so called because the performers, when reaching the end of B, "take it from the head" and repeat A
a showy passage for the soloist appearing near the end of the movement in a concerto; it usually incorporates rapid runs, arpeggios, and snippets of previously heard themes into a fantasy-like improvisation
the German word for the hymn of the Lutheran church; hence a simple religious melody to be sung by the congregation
a multi-movement sacred work including arias, ariosos, and recitatives performed by vocal soloists, and chorus, and a small accompanying orchestra; became the musical core of the Sunday service of the Lutheran church
in a fugue, the opening section, in which each voice in turn has the opportunity to present the subject
a composition for three, four, or five parts played or sung by voices or instruments, which begins with a presentation of a subject in imitation in each part and continues with modulating passages of free counterpoint and further appearances of the subject
a note, usually in the bass, sustained or continually repeated for a period of time while the harmonies change around it [Bach, Fugue in G minor, CD 1/19 1:37-1:47]
an introductory, improvisatory-like movement that gives the performer a chance to warm up and sets the stage for a more substantive subsequent movement
(Bach: Organ Fugue in G Minor) The first three notes of the initial statement of the subject are all drawn from the tonic triad: G. B-flat, and D. This statement begins on G. What is he order of the second and third notes?
D, then B-Flat
(Bach: Organ Fugue in G Minor) Each of the four statements of the subject in the exposition begins on either the tonic or the dominant. Which does the fourth statement begin on?
(Bach: Organ Fugue in G Minor) What helps to distinguish among the 4 statements of the subject in the exposition?
The starting pitch and register, time, tone color, expectation that all 4 voices will state the subject in the exposition
(Bach: Organ Fugue in G Minor)
In this recording, what contributes to a sense of finality at the end of the piece?
The dominant-to-tonic chord progression, the major mode of the last chord
(Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major)
How present is the Harpsichord?
present throughout the movement, without a break
(Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major)
What most accurately describes the general pitch counter of the opening phrase of the ritornello?
ascends, descends, ascends again
(Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major)
After the first statement of the complete ritornello, what concerto instruments enter first?
(Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major)
Considering the rhythm aspect of the music, what is true of the beginning of this first concerto passage, in comparison to the ritornello?
the tempo is the same and the flute and violin play longer notes
The most noteworthy compositions of Bach and Handel are large-scale works full of
dramatic power, broad gestures, and often complex counterpoint.
Melody is governed by the principle of ____________; an initial theme is continually expanded.
Melodies are typically _____ and __________, and often notes are propelled by ________________.
long, asymmetrical, melodic sequence
____ and _______ are more easily recognized in late Baroque music than in the music of any other period
Beat and meter
A composition typically begins with _______________, and it—or a complementary one—continues uninterrupted to the very end of the movement.
one prominent rhythmic idea,
The music of ____ and ______ is usually denser in texture, and more rigorously contrapuntal, than that of the early Baroque era.
Bach and Handel
At the outset each voice presents the subject in turn, and this successive presentation is called the _______________.
exposition of the fugue.
In a fugue, passages of exact imitation are interrupted by sections of_______________________.
free writing in which the voices more or less go their own way.
These freer sections, where the subject is not heard in its entirety, are called ________.
A fugue is a composition for ____ or more parts (usually not more than five) played or sung by ____________, which begins with a presentation of a subject in____________________, continues with modulating passages of free counterpoint (episodes) and further appearances of the subject, and ends with a strong affirmation of the _______.
two, voices or instruments, imitation in each part (exposition), tonic key.
The church cantata became the musical core of the ______________.
Sunday service of the Lutheran Church.
The church cantata was sung after the reading of the _____, and provided a commentary on the Gospel text, allowing the congregation to meditate on the word of the Lord.
The chorale is a spiritual melody or religious folksong of the Lutheran Church—what other denominations would simply call a _______
Chorales are easy to sing because they have
clear-cut phrases and a steady beat with one syllable of text per note.
the concerto grosso is a
3 movement work involving musical dialog between a chamber orchestra (tutti) and a small group of soloists (concerto). It usually consists of 2-3 violins and a continuo.
a large, independent section of a major instrumental work, such as sonata, dance suite, symphony, quartet, or concerto
a series of notes arranged in order to form a distinctive, recognizable musical unit; it is most often placed in the treble.
a concerto in which an orchestra and a single performer in turn present and develop the musical material in the spirit of harmonious composition
musical form in which a theme continually returns but is varied by the changing notes of the melody, the harmony, the rhythm, or some other feature of the music.
a musical form in which all or part of the main theme is played repeatedly by the tutti, with each statement separated by virtuosic solo section played by the concertino
a series of notes arranged in order to form a distinctive recognizable musical unit, usually in treble
the main identifying element of the fugue is
theme, or subject, that is imitated in various voices in a somewhat systematic function.
a genre of opera that dominated the stage during the Baroque era, making use of serious historical or mythological subjects, da capo arias, and a lengthy overture
a large-scale genre of sacred music involving an overture, arias, recitatives, and choruses, but sung, whether in a theater or a church, without costumes or scenery
Aria with several distinctive characteristics, all of which suggest the movement of simple shepherds attending the Christ Child: it glides along mainly in stepwise motion; it projects a lilting rhythm in which a slow moving beat is subdivided into three easily flowing eighth notes; and it grounds itself upon a harmony that changes slowly (in imitation of shepherds' bagpipes)
London in the early eighteenth century was the largest city in Europe and offered impressive opportunity for _______.
The _______ is a collection of stylized, abstract dances, usually from four to seven movements, all in one key and for one group of instruments
Composers attempted to make each dance recognizable to audiences by ____________.
incorporating its rhythmic character, melodic style, and texture.
Typical dances in the late Baroque suite include _______, ________, and the __________
allemande, saraband, minuet
Like the movements of a chamber sonata by Corelli, almost all the dances were in __________.
binary form (AB)
Often a binary dance is followed by a second, complementary dance, (e.g., having a trio (CD) follow a minuet). In such a case, the first dance is repeated after the second is performed, creating a ________.
large-scale ternary movement (ABCDAB).
Much of the action is reported in the form of recitatives and the principal characters react to these events by means of________.
arias that express stock emotions.
_________ first appeared in seventeenth-century Italy as an extended musical setting of a sacred text for spiritual edification.
By Handel's day, oratorios, in effect, an opera with a ___________. Unlike opera, it makes no use of acting, staging, or costumes.
Because the subject matter is sacred, there is more of an opportunity for moralizing, a dramatic function best performed by a _________.
the chorus in ancient Greek drama, as the ____________ commenting on the action that has transpired.
voice of the people
The da capo aria, which originated in Italian opera, has two musical sections______. After the singer reaches the end of part B, he or she repeats A (creating an _____ form), but embellishing the repeat with __________.
A and B, ABA, virtuosic ornamentation
(Italian for "comic opera") an opera on a light, often domestic subject, with tuneful melodies, comic situations, and a happy ending
instead of having the pitches of a chord sound all together, the notes are played in succession to provide a continual stream of sound
a genre of opera that originated in the eighteenth century, portraying everyday characters and situations, and using spoken dialogue and simple songs
also called the "Age of Reason," it was a period in philosophy that gave free rein to the pursuit of truth and the discovery of natural laws
We use the term "classical" in two ways:
to signify "serious" or "art" music as opposed to popular or folk music, and to identify music from a specific period of time.
"Classical" as a style period _______ refers to a time which sought to reinstitute the aesthetic values of the ancient Greeks and Romans by incorporating ___________.
(1750-1820) balance and harmonious proportions.
When expressed in music, this "classical" tendency appeared as _______.
balanced phrases, clear textures, and easily audible musical forms.
Other periods have been inspired by classical antiquity—___________.
the Renaissance especially, but also the Baroque, and twentieth century—but not as much as during the eighteenth century.
Music from the classical period is often referred to as the "Viennese Classical style"
"Viennese Classical style"
why was the classical era referred to as "Viennese Classical Style"
Vienna was the most active center of music in central Europe and the three principal composers of the era—Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven—all resided there.
The Classical era in music coincides with the __________, which is also known as the "Age of Reason."
This philosophical movement gave free rein to the
pursuit of truth and the discovery of natural laws. It was the age of such milestones as the discovery of electricity, the invention of the steam engine, and the publication of the first encyclopedias.
In France, ____________ espoused the principles of social justice, equality, religious tolerance, and freedom of speech.
Voltaire and Rousseau
These Enlightenment ideals subsequently became fundamental to democratic governments, and were enshrined in our ________.
Voltaire and other Enlightenment philosophers championed middle-class virtues, such as ________.
honesty, common sense, and hard work.
Eventually this middle class rebelled against the monarchy:
the Age of Reason gave way to the Age of Revolution.
The comic opera (known as opera buffa in Italy) proved to be a powerful vehicle for ________.
comic opera made use of everyday characters and situations as well as _________.
spoken dialogue and simple songs
Tickets for the "Concert spirituel" in Paris or the concerts in London's Vauxhall Gardens could be purchased by any citizen who _____________.This fostered a leveling between social classes with respect to the fine arts.
could pay the fee and was properly dressed.
The middle class also desired to make music in their homes, and this activity centered on a new instrument, the _______, so called because unlike the harpsichord it could play at more than one dynamic level. Within a few years the harpsichord was as out-of-date as the vinyl record.
Compared with the relentless, often grandiose sound of the Baroque, Classical music is lighter in _____________.
tone and less pretentious or predictable.
_________ often have a tuneful, singable style, with short, simple phrases that are organized in antecedent—consequent pairs.
Melody was supported by a simple, homophonic harmony that moved with a flexible harmonic rhythm—__________.
the rate at which chords change
Composers sometimes enlivened a static harmony by playing the notes of the chord one at a time rather than all together, a style known as ______.
Instead of the driving, perpetual motion of Baroque rhythm, Classical music is irregular: __________.
rapid motion may be followed by repose and then further quick movement.
Texture in the Classical era was dominantly homophonic, with short passages of _________.
polyphony reserved for contrast.
What is perhaps most revolutionary about Classical period music is its ___________. The melodic style and texture can change within a few short bars, and composers began to call for crescendos and diminuendos. This all created a new sense of urgency and drama.
capacity for rapid change and endless fluctuation.
sonata allegro form
a dramatic musical form of the classical and romantic periods involving an exposition, development, and recapitulation, with optional introduction and coda
double exposition form
a form, originating in the concerto of the classical period, in which the first orchestra and then the soloist present the primary thematic material.
the central pitch around which the melody and the harmony gravitate; a chord built on the first degree of the scale; it is the most stable chord, and the one toward which the other chords move.
the process in music whereby the tonal center changes from one key to another, from G major to C major, for example.
a rich, influential, and aristocratic family in Hungary that had a passionate interest in music
a fraternity that believed in the Enlightenment ideals of tolerance and universal brotherhood
the center-most portion of sonata-allegro form, in which the thematic material of the exposition is developed and extended, transformed, or reduced to its essence; it is often the most confrontational and unstable section of the movement
in a fugue, the opening section, in which each voice in turn has the opportunity to present the subject; in sonata-allegro form, the principal section, in which all thematic material is presented
a short fugue set in some other musical form like sonata-allegro or theme and variations [Beethoven Sym. 5, third mvt., CD 3/10 1:47-2:02]
a moderate dance in triple meter, though actually danced in patterns of six steps, with no upbeat but with highly symmetrical phrasing
in sonata-allegro form, the return to the first theme and the tonic key following the development
the major key in a pair of major and minor keys; relative keys have the same key signature, for example E-flat major and C minor (both with three flats)
the end of the development section where the tonality often becomes stabilized on the dominant in preparation for the return of the tonic (and first theme) at the beginning of the recapitulation
an instrumental work for a small ensemble originally intended as a light entertainment in the evening
a dramatic musical form of the Classical and Romantic periods involving an exposition, development, and recapitulation, with optional introduction and coda
a three-part musical form in which the third section is a repeat of the first, hence ABA
in sonata-allegro form the unstable section in which the tonality changes from tonic to dominant (or relative major) in preparation for the appearance of the second theme
an ensemble, vocal or instrumental, with three performers; also, a brief, self-contained composition contrasting with a previous piece, such as a minuet or a polonaise; originally the trio was performed by only three instruments
the last movement in a multi-movement composition, one that usually works to a climax and conclusion
Köchel (K) number
Köchel (K) number
the numbering system that arranges Mozart's compositions in approximate chronological order
an ancient musical form (surviving into the twentieth century) in which a refrain alternates with contrasting material
theme and variations
a musical form in which a theme continually returns but is varied by changing the notes of the melody, the harmony, the rhythm, or some other feature of the music
a one-movement orchestral work in three sections (fast-slow-that originated in Italy as an overture to seventeenth century operas
a showy passage for the soloist appearing near the end of the movement in a concerto; it incorporates rapid runs, arpeggios, and snippets of previously heard themes into a fantasy-like improvisation
double exposition form
a form, originating in the concerto of the Classical period, in which first the orchestra and then the soloist present the primary thematic material
a rapid, jovial work in triple meter often used in place of the minuet as the third movement in a string quartet or symphony
a concerto in which an orchestra and a single performer in turn present and develop the musical material in the spirit of harmonious competition
a standard instrumental ensemble for chamber music consisting of a first and second violin, a viola, and cello; also a genre of music, usually in three of four movements, composed for this ensemble
a genre of instrumental music for orchestra consisting of several movements; also the orchestral ensemble that plays this genre
While there were many other fine musicians in Europe during is period, the best compositions of ________________ reached a level all their own.
Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven
_________, the fourth largest city in Europe, was the capital of the old Holy Roman Empire and the home of an aristocratic society that offered patronage to musicians.
A small number of forms—__________—regulated nearly all art music during the Classical period.
ternary, sonata-allegro, rondo, and theme and variations.
Of these forms only sonata-allegro from actually came into being during this era.
Sonata-allegro form dominated musical structure during the time of _______, and remained a potent force in the works of most composers of the Romantic era, as well as in the creations of some twentieth-century musicians.
Mozart and Haydn
In most ternary forms the B section contrasts the _________ from the surrounding units of A.
melody, key, and/or mood
The minuet is not a form, but rather a genre of dance featuring a moderate tempo and constant triple meter.
genre of dance featuring a moderate tempo and constant triple meter.
Originally______instruments played a second minuet, and so it was called the trio; the name persisted into the nineteenth century no matter how many instrumental lines were required.
The serenade is a lighthearted, multi-movement composition intended for public entertainment and often performed outdoors by a string ensemble or small orchestra. Mozart's A Little Night Music is an example of this genre.
There is a distinction between sonata as a general term and the more specific sonata-allegro form. The sonata genre in the Classical period generally designates a three-movement composition either for solo piano or for a melody instrument with piano accompaniment.
Sonata-allegro form is at once the most complex and most satisfying of music forms, one that has the potential for dramatic presentation, conflict, and resolution.
The model for sonata-allegro form is an abstraction of what commonly occurs, but composers have exhibited countless individual solutions to the task of writing in this form. The model, or "standard form", can be of great use to the listener, however, because it gives a clear picture of what we might expect to hear.
In the exposition, the composer presents the main themes of the movement: the first theme, transition or bridge, the second theme, and closing theme.
Most of the form's drama is heard in the development section, where the thematic material is developed. The themes can be extended or varied, or reduced to its musical essence. It is not uncommon to hear a fugato in this section, and the development concludes with a passage called the retransition, in which tonal order is often restored by means of a pedal point.
After the turmoil of the development, the themes return in the recapitulation, and while not an exact re-statement of the exposition, it presents the same musical events in their original order.
About half the mature symphonies of Haydn and Mozart open with a brief introduction prior to the exposition. The Coda is a section added to the end of a sonata-allegro movement to create a grand effect and announce to the listener that the end is at hand.
Three steps will assist beginning listeners to hear sonata-allegro form: first, memorize the diagram in this chapter; second, focus on remembering melodies (melodic graphing can help with this); and third, identify the four distinctive styles of writing found in sonata-allegro form.
Theme and variations as well as rondo form are relatively simple and straightforward, usually emphasizing just one theme, in contrast to the multiplicity of themes present in sonata-allegro form. These forms may exist as a movement within a multi-movement sonata or symphony, or it may stand alone as a one-movement, independent piece.
The principle of theme and variations is one common to many artistic media. In music, the object of variation is most often the melody. For this form to be effective, the theme must be clearly stated and easily grasped. Patriotic songs have always been a favorite choice for musical variation.
Variation can be effected in either of two ways—by changing the primary theme itself or by changing the context around that theme (the accompaniment).
In the Classical period, it was common for a composer-pianist to improvise in concert a set of variations on a well-known tune, perhaps one requested by the audience. Mozart was especially skilled in this spontaneous art.
In the Classical period, all the units of variation are typically the same length but become progressively more complicated as the theme is ornamented and transformed. The addition of a coda after the last variation gives the listener a sense of completion.
Of all the musical forms, rondo is perhaps the easiest to hear, because a single, unvaried theme (the refrain) returns again and again. Rondo form has existed since the Middle Ages and was adapted into ritornello form during the Baroque era.
A true classical rondo must have at least three statements of the refrain (A) and at least two contrasting sections (at least B and C).
Classical composers most often chose the rondo form for the finale of a sonata, quartet, or symphony. With its carefree tune and easily grasped digressions, it provides the musical equivalent of a happy ending.
Multi-movement Classical compositions typically conformed to certain characteristics of form and mood. For example, the first movement is almost always a fast-moving sonata-allegro movement that is serious and substantive despite the tempo.
"Genre" refers to a general type of music. It is defined by its special quality of style, performing ensemble, or even the place of performance associated with one class or type of music.
There were five main genres of secular art music in the Classical period: symphony, string quartet, sonata, concerto, and opera. The symphony and string quartet were entirely new to the Classical period, created in no small part by Haydn.
The symphony became the preeminent genre of instrumental music in the late eighteenth century. Haydn composed 104 while during his brief lifetime Mozart composed 41.
The symphony evolved from the late-seventeenth-century Italian opera overture, called the sinfonia, a one-movement instrumental work in three sections (fast-slow-fast). After a time composers wrote sinfonias as independent works instead of overtures, and expanded the three sections into separate movements. In the 1740s, northern European composers added an additional movement, the minuet and trio, and the modern symphony was born.
The popularity of the symphony was tied to progressive social changes engendered by the Enlightenment, which included the appearance of public concerts. Symphonies usually opened and closed each concert, and the genre became so closely linked with the performing ensemble that the group is often called a "symphony orchestra."
As the genre of symphony increased in popularity, so too did the size of the orchestra. Prince Esterházy's private orchestra under Haydn's direction was never larger than twenty-five musicians. When Haydn's works were performed at public concerts in London, however, the ensemble had more than double the number of instrumentalists.
The orchestra of the Classic period added pairs of woodwind instruments (flutes, oboes, clarinets, and bassoons) and as many a twenty string players for each string part. Compared to the Baroque orchestra, this larger ensemble was more colorful and more flexible.
Mozart composed his last three symphonies in six weeks during the summer of 1788. It is likely that he invoked the tragic muse for his G minor symphony (No. 40, K. 550) rather than responding to a particular disappointment. A falling half-step, traditionally used to denote pain and suffering, is embedded in motives throughout the symphony.
The string quartet typifies chamber music—music for the small concert hall or the home. Often enough, quartets were played just for the enjoyment of the performers themselves.
The string quartet has only one player per part: first violinist, second violinist, violist, and cellist. Since all the performers function equally and communicate directly among themselves, quartets do not use a conductor.
Haydn is justly called "the father of the string quartet", since he transformed the Baroque trio sonata by replacing the basso continuo with a more melodically active cello line and adding a viola to the middle texture. In some of his quartets, Haydn replaced the elegant minuet and trio with a high-spirited scherzo.
During the Classical era, aristocrats and members of the middle class often played quartets with friends as well as engaged professional musicians to entertain guests. Haydn and Mozart joined in this tradition when they played quartets together, and it was through this shared activity that they developed a close friendship that lasted until Mozart's death.
The sonata was a favorite genre during the period, in part because of the sudden popularity of the piano, so much so that "sonata" normally refers to a three-movement work for piano unless the title is otherwise qualified (e.g., "violin sonata").
Composers wrote sonatas for amateur musicians, mostly women, who practiced and performed for polite society in their own homes. Sonatas provided them with literature for practice as well as works to play for their family, friends, and suitors.
Another important genre of chamber music that flourished during the period was the sonata, a work in three movements (fast-slow-fast), each of which might make use of one or another of the forms favored by Classical composers: sonata-allegro, ternary, rondo, or theme and variations.
The Classical concerto is a large-scale, three-movement work for instrumental soloist and orchestra intended for a public audience. Audiences were often lured to the concert hall by the prospect of hearing a virtuoso performer play a concerto.
Having composed twenty-three original piano concertos, more than any other important composer in history, Mozart is considered "the father of the modern piano concerto."
The first movement of a concerto is in sonata-allegro form, but it is modified into what we call "double exposition form," In this form the orchestra plays one exposition and the soloist then plays another exposition based on the same material.
Near the end of the recapitulation the orchestra suddenly stops its forward motion and comes to rest on a single chord. Using this chord as a point of departure, the pianist launches into a virtuosic cadenza, a section that mixes rapid runs, arpeggios, and snippets of themes into a fantasy-like improvisation. The soloist concludes the cadenza with a trill, signaling the orchestra that it is time for them to reenter with the closing theme of the movement.
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