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Biology 107 CH 23
Terms in this set (26)
Alternative form of a gene; occur at the same locus on homologous chromosomes.
Arise from mutations
Physical location of a trait (or gene) on a chromosome.
Member of a pair of chromosomes that are alike and come together in synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division; a homologue.
One member from each pair inherited from each parent
May have different alleles of particular genes - not identical
Visible expression of a genotype. Ex: brown eyes or attached ear lobes.
Observable physical and functional traits
genes of an organism for a particular trait or traits; often designated by letters for example BB or Aa.
Individuals genetic make up
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment
Mendelian principle that explains how combinations of traits appear in gametes
"Each pair of factors separates independently"
Genes for different traits are separated from each other individually.
Mendel's Law of Segregation
Mendelian principle that explains how, in a diploid organism, alleles separate during the formation of the gametes
Gametes carry only one allele of each gene
Each gene trait has two alleles
Letters used for each allele
Allele that exerts its phenotypic effect in in the heterozygote; it masks the expression of the recessive allele.
Allele that exerts its phenotypic effect only in the homozygote; its expression is masked by a dominant allele.
Possessing unlike alleles for a particular trait
Two different alleles at a particular locus
Possessing two identical alleles for a particular traits
Two identical alleles at a particular locus.
Genotypic representation of a recessive phenotype
Outcomes of a monohybrid cross
Phenotype - 3:1 (.75 : .25)
Genotype - 1:2:1 (.25: .50: .25)
Predicting outcomes in a mendelian mono hybrid cross
F1: all of them are purple flowers with one dominant allele and one recessive allele (Pp)
F2: 3 purple flowers (PP, Pp, Pp) and 1 white flower (pp) 1/4 PP homozygous Dominant. 1/2 Pp Heterozygous. 1/4 pp Homozygous Recessive
Inheritance pattern in which an offspring has an intermediate phenotype, as when one red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant produce pink-flowered offspring.
Inheritance pattern in which both alleles of a gene are equally expressed in a heterozygote.
Traits that are under the control of multiple genes as opposed to monogenic (single-trait) traits. A
Pattern of inheritance in which a trait is controlled by several allele pairs.
Physically located on the same chromosome.
May be inherited together
May be "shuffled" during crossing over in meiosis.
Failure of the homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate during either mitosis or meiosis; produces cells with abnormal chromosome numbers.
The study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics.
Unit of heredity existing as alleles on the chromosomes; in diploid organisms, typically two alleles are inherited - one from each parent
DNA sequences that contain instructions for building proteins
Mono hybrid cross that would yield 1:2:1 ratio
Two carriers of heterozygous alleles (Pp x Pp)
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