World Music Exam #2
Terms in this set (90)
stresses "balance" between opposites--strong vs. weak; empty vs. full; etc. Every day life balances out.
The Hinduism approach to life often comes across in the Indian musical approach.
Divides families into social classes strictly based on their family birthright. This is ILLEGAL today, but it still carries some weight in modern day India. There are 5 levels of social classes in the Hindu faith.
Very hard to move from one social class to the next
Northern India Style Music
-strong Islamic influence
-nothing written down
-over 90% made up during performance
Southern India Style Music
-less Islamic influence
A set of pitches that create a specific melody.
-Not a scale
-each is connected to a certain religious event, season, time of day, etc
Only one raga exists in Indian culture
No 2 perfomances of the same raga are the same, improvisation.
a way of keeping the beat of the music while also stressing the different strengths and functions of different beats.
"wave beats" or weaker beats
the number of beats in a cycle can range from 3 - over 100
a rhythmic repeated pattern that takes place at the end of a major section. Rhythmic pattern repeated three times.
Southern India Instruments
Flue, Violin, Tambora, Mridangam
Northern India Instruments
Sitar, Tabla, Tambora
given the credit for spreading the traditional India music to Europe and North America.
Member of the Beatles; met and worked with Ravi Shankar starting in 1960.
Jazz legend used Indian music.
British jazz artist integrated Indian instruments and styles into his music. Created new "groups" that focused in this combined style of music.
geographically covers all of South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean.
Any music that is created in the geographical area (s. America, central America, Mexico, and Caribbean) along with its diaspora communities in the U.S., Canada, and Europe.
the island of Puerto Rico plays a large role in the creation of important styles within Latin music.
History of Cuba's Musical Influences
Spain colonized in 1500's (Spanish Influence). Started exporting sugar cane; Spanish brought over millions of slaves from W. Africa (African Influence).
development of a new culture out of the extended "blending" of two or more cultures.
came about due to the creolization of the African and Spanish/Cuban cultures. This style of music is the bases for most of the Latin music we listen to today.
African slaves sent to Cuba were allowed to keep their African traditions and beliefs.
a religion connected with ritual drumming through African roots.
an early social "dance music" of traditional Cuba.
the backbone to rumba music, also used in several other Afro-Cuban or Latin music forms.
a three drum set connected with Santeria music. Always found in 3's with 3 players.
three drum set connected with Rumba
Big Band Mambo Instrumetns
piano, saxophone, trumpet, trombone, etc
Big Band Mambo style example
born in Spanish Harlem
-joined big band, "Machito and the Afro-Cubans" but time cut short by WWII
-"Oye Como Va"
"Oye Como Va"
became very popular bc of its uniqueness; uplifting groove BUT in a minor key (darker sadder sound)
San Francisco based rock group with a Latin twist came out with their version of "oye como va" in 1970.
Tito Puente made more money in royalties off of Santana's album than his own.
Three Major Japanese Instruments
Flue made of bamboo
-waves in music created by players head movements.
somewhat like a banjo
-played with pic or fingertip
-play melody, or act as rhythm instrument
Japanese music read from top - bottom, right - left.
fat drum; refers to the large drum used in ____ drumming.
False, 6th century
Taiko drumming dates back as far as the 4th century
Taiko drums first used in battlefields. Used to intimidate and scare enemies, also signal across battlefield
Early Uses of Taiko Drums
1. On Battlefields
2. Court Music
3. Religious Use
4. Small villages, used to signal villagers
Buddhism and Shinto
Two early religions used Taiko drums heavily.
Modern Taiko Ensemble
-credit goes to Mr. Daihachi Oguchi and the modern ensemble first came about around 1950.
repeated musical pattern
Dance and visual elements of taiko ensemble were first added by Sukeroku Daiko around 1960.
1980's the Japanese government authorized funds for local communities to "preserve Japanese cultural assets".
Japanese Kabuki Theater
created in early 1600's by females and performed only by females.
Japanese Kabuki drew negative attention due to rique nature so government banned all females from theaters.
False; since government ban, only males.
Today females are permitted in Kabuki theater performances.
Most Kabuki topics are based around the "morale" ideas and have strong historical perspective.
"rough style" of acting by exaggeration and dramatic makeup.
male actor who plays female roles. These roles were very important as popularity of theater grew.
False; full day, combines shows, can come and go as you please
Kabuki shows last a few hours at most, with one story, and you must stay the entire time.
Shrine in Kabuki theaters which actors pay respects to upon entering.
-each bell has it's own spirit and personality
-copper plates with parishioners names and prayers are added to melting liquid to become a part of the bell
-"sound of bell= the voice of Buddha"
Three types of Bunraku performers
2. chanters (narrators)
3. shamisen player (sometimes other instruments)
Size of puppets range from 2.5 - 4 feet
Music in Bunraku is mostly shamisen, but sometimes Taiko, Koto, and others can be used.
Highlight for playwrights to write for Bunraku bc the human actors cannot mess up the script
False, 10 years for each
Puppeteers must work the feet for 5 years, the left hand for 5 years, then they can operate the head--expected to create their own technique.
Currently around 150 taiko ensembles in U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, S. America, and others.
-13 string "traditional" court music instrument
-brought from China, But Chinese version had 23 strings (urban legend said "cut in half" when came to Japan)
-pluck strings using 3 diff pics
-strings all the same length and thickness
-strings used to be silk, now nylon
-shape represents a dragon
False, 16th Century
Koto first referenced in 17th century in Buddhist ceremony.
Mi Yagi Michio
Credited with composing for the Koto with western instruments and styles
4 or 5 stringed small lute like traditionally used in Gagaku and came from China. Body is solid wood, silk string, plucked with large pic.
wind, flute, made of bamboo with 4 or 5 finger holes
-ancient Egypt migrates through India, China, and into Japan 7th century.
-gained popularity with use in Buddhist ceremonies monks would play while asking for donations
more modern and popular ensemble incorporates Koto, Shamisen, and Shakuhachi.
Koto piece Gagaku ensemble piece.
"Raga Nat Bhairav"
Indian inspired jazz
"Song for Obatala"
"Las Leyendas de Grecia"
"Oye Como Va"
Cha cha cha
The most dramatic of the taiko drums (big drum)
Imperial court music
own form of dance music developed by and used for Kabuki. (long song)q
wandering Buddhist priests ("priests of nothingness").
Nokan, Takebue, Shinobue
other Japanese flutes